Quantity: Dherai and Thorai

The first quantity expressing words we will be looking at will be धेरै (dherai) and थोरै (thorai). Dherai denotes more quantity while thorai denotes less quantity.

DHERAI

धेरै (dheraidenotes more quantity, hence has a meaning of ‘more’ or ‘much’. Sometimes, the meaning can also be ‘a lot of’. 

It is entirely optional to add the pluralizing ‘haru' after countable nouns (uncountables never take haru). However, it suggested to leave ‘haru' out because it sounds much more conversational. Also note that even though plurality should agree with the noun in question, it is more often seen that plural verb forms are used with humans and singular verb forms are used with inanimates. 

Examples:

धेरै मान्छे (dherai manche) = Many People

धेरै काम (dherai kaam) = Much Work

धेरै चामल (dherai chamal) = A lot of Rice

                                                                                                              .

You can also use them in sentences, such as:

यहाँ धेरै मान्छेहरु छन् (yaha dherai manche`haru chan)

= Here are many people.

मसँग धेरै किताब छ  (ma sanga dherai kitab cha)

= I have many books.

धेरै भात नहाल्दिनु है (dherai bhaat nahaaldinu hai)

= Don’t keep a lot of rice, okay?

                                                                                                              .

Dherai is also an adverb, so the position of dherai affects the final meaning. Be careful with its arrangement! For example:

People run a lot. (manche`haru dherai kudchan)

VS

A lot (of) people run. (dherai manche`haru kudchan)

                                                                                                              .

धेरै घाँसमा गाईहरु चर्छन् (dherai ghas ma gai`haru charchan)

= Cows graze on a lot of grass.

घाँसमा धेरै गाईहरु चर्छन् (ghas ma dherai gai`haru charchan)

Many cows graze on grass.

घाँसमा गाईहरु धेरैचर्छन् (ghas ma gai`haru dherai charchan)

= Cows graze a lot on grass.

                                                                                                              .

Dherai can also be used in the sense of ‘very’ or ‘very much/ too much’. However, when used in terms of ‘very’, it is usually used for abstract nouns (like feelings). When meant as ‘too’, it is usually used for emphasizing a quantity (may or may not be tangible). For example:

मलाई धेरै रिस उठ्यो! (malai dherai ris uthyo)

= I am very angry!

म तिमीलाई धेरै मन पराउँछु (ma timi`lai dherai man paraauchu)

= I love you very much.

धेरै नकरा! (dherai nakaraa)

= Don’t shout too much! (Shut up!)

_______

THORAI

थोरै (thoraidenotes less quantity, hence has a meaning of ‘less’ or ‘little’. Sometimes, the meaning can also be ‘few’. 

For example:

थोरै मान्छे (thorai manche) = Few People

थोरै काम (thorai kaam) = Less/ little Work

थोरै चामल (thorai chamal) = Little Rice

                                                                                                              .

You can also use them in sentences, such as:

यहाँ थोरै मान्छेहरु छन् (yaha thorai manche`haru chan)

= Few people are here.

मसँग थोरै किताब छ  (ma sanga thorai kitab cha)

= I have a few books.

थोरै भात हाल्दिनु है (thorai bhaat haaldinu hai)

= Keep less rice, okay?

                                                                                                              .

Like dherai, thorai can also be an adverb, so mind its position!

मान्छेहरुले थोरै खाना खान्छन् (manche`haru le thorai khana khanchan)

= People eat little food.

VS

थोरै मान्छेहरुले खाना खान्छन् (thorai manche`haru le khana khanchan)

= Few people eat food.

VS

मान्छेहरुले खाना थोरै खान्छन् (manche`haru le khana thorai khanchan)

= People eat food less.

____

Dherai and thorai were not so difficult, was it? Let’s do some exercises and find out!

 .

EXERCISES

A. FILL IN THE CORRECT BLANKS WITH THORAI AND/OR DHERAI

1) Aaja —-a—-   manche`haru ghar —-b—- jaadaithiyo (Many people were going home today.)

2)  —-a—- gaai haru beef lai ——b—— man paraauchan (Few cows like beef very much.)

B. TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING

1) I find many mistakes in your essay.

2) Less is always more.

3) थोरै मान्छे धेरै कुर्सी! 

C. ARE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES CORRECT?

1) यो धेरै ठूलो छ (yo dherai thulo cha)

2) थोरै त्यो मान्छे हो (thorai tyo manche ho)

   .

ANSWERS (some answers for illustrative purposes only)

A. 1. Dherai in a

A. 2. Thorai in a/ dherai in b

B. 1. तिम्रो निबन्धमा धेरै गल्तीहरु भेटाएँ (timro nibandha ma dherai galti haru bhetae)

B. 2. थोरै जहिल्यै धेरै हो (thorai jahilyai dherai ho)

C. 1. Yes

C. 2. No

Quantity: Introduction

Over the next few lessons we will be focusing on Quantity. Quantity is the amount or number of a material or an immaterial substance. Hence, we will be seeing how to assign quantity words in sentences.

Quantity words are only used with nouns. That means, they are used to describe an amount of an object (noun). There are two types of nouns that take on Quantity words:

1) Countable Nouns (pens, apples etc.) - Things that can be counted

2) Uncountable Nouns (water, gold etc.) - Things that cannot be counted

                                                                                                             .   

As an introduction, let’s see some quantity words in English:

There are many apples on the basket.

Two apples lay on the shelf.

                                                                                                             .   

We have already discussed counting in Nepali, so we will be solely focusing on using various words like many, few, less etc. i.e. words that quantify. To go the lesson on how to count Objects in Nepali, click here.

The two basic counters we will be looking in brief are:

Dherai - Expresses more quantity

For example:

dherai bhat = Much Rice

dherai phulharu = Many Flowers

                     .

Thorai - Expresses less quantity

For example:

thorai pani = Less water

thorai manche`haru = Less people                     .

However, quantity words are not solely used for counting. There are other counting words which do denote quantity but do not do so directly (like the word ‘too’):

ati dherai bhat = Too much rice

Since this is only an introduction, we will be discussing quantity more over the next few lessons (in detail!)

Stay tuned!

Causative verbs

When you make someone do something, you are causing someone to do an action. It doesn’t necessarily have to be you to make that event. Take the following sentence:

Mary made John to make food.

Here, a person is making or ‘causing’ a recipient to do an action. In other words, something is making something or someone to cause an action. The verb involved here indicates that, in the sentence, an action is being caused by something. Such verbs that indicate ‘cause’ are called Causative verbs. In Nepali, causative verbs are called ‘प्रेरणार्थक क्रिया’ (prernarthak kriya). Note that all causative verbs are transitive in Nature.

However, it is not necessary for a causative verb to be translated into as ‘made’. For example, पढाउनु (padhaunu) is a causative verb in Nepali. It stems from the word ‘पढ्नु’ (padhnu) which means ‘To study/read’. Can we guess what पढाउनु (padhaunu) is then? 

It means ‘To make someone study’ like ‘He made me study books’. However, we can instead of writing ‘make someone study’ write ‘teach’ instead. Much shorter, right?

Infact, most Causative verbs work this way (when translated into English). For example, jalaaunu stems from ‘jalnu' which means 'To be burnt' so jalaaunu basically means ‘To be made to be burnt’ but can be shortened into ‘To burn something’ or just simply ‘To burn’.

Most causatives have ‘aaunu' as their final syllables.

Now, let’s learn how to convert verbs into causative verbs. Also, do note that intransitives can also be converted and the following are just simple guidelines and may not be applicable for all verbs. Once you convert a verb into a causative verb, it behaves like any other verb. (meaning you can conjugate it to different tenses, moods etc.)

__

CONVERTING VERBS THAT HAVE ROOTS ENDING WITH A CONSONANT

By a consonant, I meant that half consonant we always talk about. For example, such a verb would be like बस्नु (basnu) or पढ्नु (padhnu). Anyway, the rules are:

1) Extract the root from the verb. To do this, remove the ‘nu’

2) If the first syllable of the root starts with an आ (aa) sound, convert that into an अ (a) sound first 

3) Add आउनु (aaunu) to the root of the verb. If the final letter of the root is a pure consonant, add an inherent vowel sound to it [E.g.: गर् (gar) + आउ (aau)  = गराउ (garaau)]

That is about it. Also do note that if the first syllable starts with an ‘o’ sound, then you cannot use the above described method.

Examples:

बस्नु (basnu) -> बस् (bas) + आउनु (aaunu) -> बसाउनु (basaaunu)

लुक्नु (luknu) -> लुक् (luk) + आउनु (aaunu) -> लुकाउनु (lukaaunu)

हाँस्नु (haasnu) -> हस्ँ (has) + आउनु (aaunu) -> हँसाउनु (hasaaunu)

__

CONVERTING VERBS THAT HAVE ‘AAUNU’ (आउनु) AS THEIR FINAL SYLLABLES OR VERBS THAT HAVE AN  ओ (o) SOUND IN THEIR FIRST SYLLABLE

Some verbs have आउनु (aaunu) as their final syllables. For example, all these verbs have आउनु (aaunu) as their final syllables:

आउनु (aaunu /to come/), पाउनु (paaunu /to get/), पठाउनु (pathaaunu /to send/), समाउनु (samaaunu /to hold/) etc.

Please do note that even though these words have ‘aaunu' as their last syllables, they are NOT causatives (yet). 

Some verbs also have ‘o’ in their first syllable. For example:

रोक्नु (roknu /to stop/), खोक्नु (khoknu /to cough/), ढोग्नु (dhognu /to bow/, बोक्नु (boknu /to carry/) etc.

To convert them into causatives is very easy:

1) Convert the last ‘नु’ (nu) into  न (na)

2) Then add लाउनु (laaunu)

Do note that लाउनु (laaunu) is a contraction of लगाउनु (lagaaunu) and all conjugations of लाउनु (laaunu) should ideally follow that of  लगाउनु (lagaaunu). Why लाउनु (laaunu)? It is much easier to say.

Simple, right? For example:

पठाउनु (pathaaunu) -> पठाउन (pathaauna) + लाउनु (laaunu) = पठाउन लाउनु (pathaauna laaunu)

रोक्नु (roknu) ->रोक्न (rokna) + लाउनु (laaunu) -> रोक्न लाउनु (rokna laaunu)

HOWEVER, it is considered to be okay to use the first method (the one for general verbs) for the ‘o’ one, like we can say ‘rokaaunu' but that is completely your preference and accepted by modern guidelines.

_

CONVERTING PASSIVE VERBS

To make causative-passive verbs, we need to first start with our active verbs. To make causative-passives:

1) Convert the active verb into an causative-active verb (rules are above!)

2) Now, convert the causative-active into a causative-passive verb

3) To do this, remove the उनु (unu) and add इनु (inu) instead

For example:

मेट्नु (metnu) -> मेटाउनु (metaaunu) -> मेटाइनु  (metaainu)  

We will learn to use causative-passive verbs on a later section. 

REMEMBER! Always convert into causative and then only passive!

_

CONVERTING SOME IRREGULAR VERBS

There are a few irregular verbs that even though they look like they follow the first rule…they do not. Most of these irregular ones have monosyllabic roots. However, like above we can convert them into causatives with the addition of लाउनु (laaunu) to them. It isn’t that difficult and follows the same rules as above:

1) Convert the last ‘नु’ (nu) into  न (na)

2) Then add लाउनु (laaunu)

So, which are the (common) verbs that do not follow the standard pattern?

हुनु (hunu /to be/), जानु (janu /to go/), पार्नु (paarnu /to enmesh; lay/), ठान्नु (thannu /to assume/), सक्नु (saknu /to finish/) etc.

I hope you know what to do now and I will just provide one example to show it:

जानु (janu) -> जान (jana) + लाउनु (laaunu) -> जान लाउनु (jana laaunu)

YET there are a few verbs that do not follow the above patterns AT ALL. There are two such common verbs and they are:

खानु (khanu /to eat/) and रुनु (runu /to cry/)

The two verb’s causatives are खुवाउनु (khuwaaunu) and रुवाउनु (ruwauunu) respectively. 

_

USING CAUSATIVES 

Using causatives is actually very easy. Once you make a causative verb, it behaves like any normal verb meaning you can conjugate it for various tenses and aspects. For example, let’s use the causative verb ‘बनाउनु’ (banaaunu). बनाउनु (banaaunu) stems from ‘bannu' which means 'To be made'. So basically, बनाउनु (banaaunu) means ‘To be made to be made’ or in other words, ‘To make’. We can conjugate it like any other verb and use it in sentences, like:

.

उसले घर बनाउँछ (usle ghar banaucha)

= He makes houses.

.

हामी सबै मिलेर देश बनाउँला (hami sabai milera desh banaula)

= We will all join hand-in-hand and make a country.

.

It wasn’t so difficult to use causatives, right? 

Sometimes, after we convert a general verb into its causative form (which ends with aaunu) we still add a लाउनु  (laaunu) after that. Why? 

Sometimes, the verb has a one-one corresponding meaning that might sound wrong…an example of this happening is with ‘pakaaunu' which means 'To cook'…so when you say 'John le Mary lai pakayo' it sounds more like 'John cooked Mary' instead of 'John made Mary cook'. To avoid this, we add 'laaunu’. More on this on a later section.

.

For causatives that have no ‘easily’ translatable counterparts like ‘बनाउनु’ (banaaunu) has, then we use the following pattern:

X made/makes/make Y do Z

For example,

रामले जनलाई काम गर्न लगायो (ram le jan lai kam garna lagayo)

= Ram made John do work.

Here, 

X is ‘Ram’ 

Y is ‘John’

Z is ‘Work’

.

I hope you get it. Perhaps a few more examples can set things straight:

जनले मेरीलाई हँसायो (jan le meri lai hasayo)

= John made Mary laugh.

.

आमाले छोरीलाई पढाउनुभयो (aama le chori lai padhaunu bhayo)

= The mother taught her daughter. (or The mother made her daughter study)

__

WHY THE EXTRA LAAUNU SOMETIMES?

Like I said before, pakaaunu usually takes up a laaunu because of its corresponding meaning to ‘Cook’. This is probably because pakaaunu come from ‘paaknu' which means 'To be cooked’. However, what if we add laaunu to others, like ‘hasaaunu’?

The sentence would not be grammatically correct per se but you must know the situations where it will be used. Adding that extra ‘laaunu' will add an extra 'made' to the sentence. This example might set things clear:

जनले मेरीलाई हँसायो (jan le meri lai hasaayo)

= John made Mary Laugh.

जनले मेरीलाई हँसाउन लगायो (john le meri lai hasauna lagaayo

= John made Mary make (something) to laugh.

.

Let’s see the example of ‘pakaaunu’. As we know, pakaaunu means ‘To be made to be cooked’. So,

जनले मेरीलाई पकायो (jan le meri lai pakayo)

= John made Mary to be made to be cooked.

जनले मेरीलाई पकाउन लगायो (jan le mari lai pakaauna lagayo)

=  John made Mary to make (something) to be made to be cooked.

.

These above sentences can be simplified into:

John cooked Mary.          AND

John made Mary cook.

.

As you can see, saying ‘John cooked Mary’ sounds very ‘Absurd’ unless he is fed up with people, I cannot tell for the sentence is technically ‘correct’, grammatically.

___

CAUSATIVE-PASSIVES

The causative-passive is simply a combination of causative and passive and as such, carries a meaning of something like:

X is made to do Y

Passive sentences lack an active focus to the subject. Hence one can completely omit it or decide to keep in the back burner. For example:

जन चिट्ठी लेख्छ (jan le chitthi lekhcha)

= John writes a letter. [ACTIVE]

.

जनद्वारा चिट्ठी लेखिन्छ (jan dwara chitthi lekhincha)

= A letter is written by John. [PASSIVE]

.

जनले मेरीलाई चिट्ठी लेखाउँछ (jan le meri lai chithi lekhaucha)

= John makes Mary write a letter. [CAUSATIVE-ACTIVE]

.

जनद्वारा मेरीलाई चिट्ठी लेखाइन्छ (jan dwara meri lai chithi lekhaincha)

= Mary is made to write a letter by John. [CAUSATIVE-PASSIVE]

.

Causative-Passives are not that hard to grasp but nonetheless requires some good amount of practice. Here are some sentences involving causative-passive constructions:

भाईद्वारा खाना खुवाइन्छ (bhai dwara khana khuwaincha)

= Food is made to be eaten by Brother.

.

विद्यार्थीहरुलाई पढाइन्छ (bidyarthi haru lai padhaincha)

= Students will be made to be made to study. [OR Students will be made to study]

.

त्यो मान्छेले मलाई १ घण्टा पर्खाइदियो (tyo manche le ek ghanta parkhaidiyo)

= That person made me wait 1 hour.

___

EXERCISES

A. CONVERT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO CAUSATIVES

1. हिँड्नु (hidnu)

2. सिक्नु (siknu)

B. CONVERT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO CAUSATIVE-PASSIVES

1. हेर्नु

2. खेल्नु 

C. CONJUGATE THE FOLLOWING INTO CAUSATIVE-PASSIVE SIMPLE PAST TENSE (FOR ऊ)

1. सिक्नु 

.

ANSWERS

A. 1. हिँडाउनु (hidaaunu)

A. 2. सिकाउनु (sikaaunu)

B. 1. हेराइनु (heraainu)

B. 2. खेलाइनु (khelainu)

C. 1. सिकाइयो (sikaaiyo)

Transitivity

Transitivity is an important aspect of Nepali. While transitivity might not be a prominent part of English (by that meaning noticeable in daily contexts), it definitely ‘is’ for Nepali. Transitivity helps to explain why some things take objects, some don’t, and why the subject sometimes takes the ‘le' particle.

So, what is transitivity? 

Transitivity is the ability of the verb to take a direct object. Such verbs are called 'transitive verbs' (सकर्मक क्रिया /sakarmak kriya/). On the other hand, verbs which do not take a direct object are called ‘Intransitive verbs’ (अकर्मक क्रिया /akarmak kriya/). Now, what is a direct object?

A direct object is an object that is the recipient of an action done by the subject. A subject is the one who is doing an action (like playing). In simplest terms, a direct object receives the action done by the subject directly. A few examples might set this clear:

He kicked the ball.  

I ate the food.

I gave him a pen.

In the above sentences, the direct objects are in bold. What is the nature of these words? Each one is directly receiving the action from the subject. It is directly being affected by the action. 

There is an interesting case on the third sentence, what is ‘him’? Is it a direct object too?

Unfortunately, no. It is an indirect object. But why? It is because it is not directly receiving the action. You can give a ‘pen’, but not ‘him’. That means, even though it is somewhat being affected by the action done by the subject, it doesn’t receive it directly.

Is there an easy way to identify the direct object? Yes! Direct objects yield an answer to ‘What’ (or who if human). The following question pattern will be satisfied if it is a direct object:

<subject> <action> What?

For example, in the third example:

<I> <gave> what?

The answer ‘a pen’ will satisfy the question ‘what’ and hence is the direct object. The sentence becomes complete that way. However, ‘Him’ doesn’t satisfy the condition (I gave him?). The sentence feels ‘incomplete’ otherwise ‘empty’.

Sometimes, a transitive verb requires a complement to make complete sense. For example:

I made my son

I made my son what? There is an information missing from the sentence. To complete it, we require to insert a complement:

I made my son a doctor

Now, let’s move on to other fronts regarding it.

_

THE CASE OF LE

If you have started to learn Nepali, then you probably know about the postposition ‘le’. When you deal with ‘le’, a particular annoyance is, sometimes it disappears entirely from the text and sometimes it just seems to repeat over and over again. In the absolute terms, ‘le’ is used in transitive sentences (however, not all transitive verb forms take ‘le’).

The moods that do not take ‘le' to the subject are:

  • Continuative Forms
  • Habitual Forms
  • Simple Present 

That means, the above moods do not take ‘le’ to the subject. So:

C: I am eating apples. (म स्याउ खाँदैछु /ma syau khadaichu/)

H: I used to apples. (म स्याउ खान्थे /ma syau khanthe/)

S: I eat apples. (म स्याउ खान्छु /ma syau khanchu/)

Of course, Instransitves do not take le. So, we can reduce this into the HICS rule. Now it is easy to memorize, right?

Do not take the marker ‘le’ off everything! Even though in the sentences above, none of the subjects took the postposition ‘le’, the rest of the moods (like simple past) take it!

Also, do realize that the le we talk about here is the subject marker le and not the instrumental marker le! It is a particular annoyance yes, but these two are independent of each other unlike in Hindi where the instrumental marker and the subject maker is different. For example:

ऊ छुरीले काट्छ (u churi le katcha)

The word churi is not a subject, hence it takes le. As you know, le is also an instrument maker. you can read more about this on the lesson PARTICLE: LE.

___

Sentence: I eat apples.

.

Simple Past: I ate apples.

म स्याउ खाएँ (ma syau khae)         [INCORRECT]

VS

मैले स्याउ खाएँ (maile syau khae)   [CORRECT]

.

Present Perfect: I have eaten apples.

मैले स्याउ खाएको छु (maile syau khaeko chu) [CORRECT]

VS

म स्याउ खाएको छु (ma syau khaeko chu) [INCORRECT]

.

Present Continuous: I am eating apples.

म स्याउ खाँदैछु (ma syau khadai chu[CORRECT]

VS

मैले स्याउ खाँदैछु (maile syau khadai chu[INCORRECT]

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COMMON TRANSITIVE VERBS LIST

Here is a list showing common transitive verbs. Remember that transitive verbs in English are also transitive in Nepali and vice versa:

खानु (khanu) = To eat

दिनु (dinu) = To give

बनाउनु (banaaunu) = To make

पकाउनु (pakaaunu) = To cook

गर्नु (garnu) = To do

रोक्नु (roknu) = To stop

लेख्नु (lekhnu) = To write

देख्नु (dekhnu) = To See

सुन्नु (sunnu) = To hear

बोल्नु (bolnu) = To speak/ talk

खोल्नु (kholnu) = To open

चलाउनु (chalaunu) = To use

झार्नु (jhaarnu) = To drop (something)

काट्नु (katnu) = To cut

लगाउनु (lagaaunu) = To wear

सिक्नु (siknu) = To learn

पढ्नु (padhnu) = To study/ read

खेल्नु (khelnu) = To play

Of course I can list all the verbs there are but the list would be very large. You can consult any dictionary to see whether a verb is transitive or not.

_

COMMON INTRANSITIVE VERBS LIST

Here is a list showing common intransitive verbs:

जानु (janu) = To go

रुनु (runu) = To cry

घट्नु (ghatnu) = To decrease

बढ्नु (badhnu) = To increase/ grow

बस्नु (basnu) = To sit

आउनु (aaunu) = To come

फर्किनु (pharkinu) = To return

उठ्नु (uthnu) = To wake up/ stand

उभिनु (ubhinu) = To stand

सुत्नु (sutnu) = To sleep

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PECULIARITY OF (SOME) NEPALI VERBS

In English, a verb can both be transitive or intransitive, depending on the situation. That means, the same verb is used to express both transitive and intransitive phrases. One example I can think of currently is: To drop

For example,

I dropped my phone. (TRANSITIVE)

The phone dropped.  (INTRANSITIVE)

However, things are not that simple in Nepali. Even if the verb gets translated into the same thing in English (like above), we have different verbs for each transitivity. That means, there is a one-one correspondence between certain verbs and transitivity. However, things are not as complex as they appear to sound. Only the form changes slightly…for example, if the transitive verbs started with the letter p, its intransitive counterpart will also start with a p. Also, some verbs are both transitive and intransitive depending on the situation, like bolnu.

Sometimes due to translation differences, different words might be used but that is all normal!

Here are some common transitive verbs (left) with their intransitive counterparts (right). 

झार्नु (jhaarnu/ To drop something) - झर्नु (jharnu / To be dropped)

जलाउनु (jalaaunu / To burn something) - जल्नु (jalnu / To be burnt) 

निकाल्नु (nikaalnu / To take out) - निक्लिनु (niklinu / To exit)

डुबाउनु (dubaaunu /To drown something) - डुब्नु (dubnu / To drown)

टाँस्नु (taasnu / To stick something) - टाँसिनु (taasinu / To be stuck)

मेट्नु (metnu / To erase something) - मेटिनु (metinu / To be erased)

छिराउनु (chiraaunu/ To insert something) - छिर्नु (chirnu/ To enter) 

.

And some examples of their use:

1) झार्नु (jhaarnu)

मैले मोबाईल झारेँ (maile mobaail jhaare)

= I dropped the phone.

-

झर्नु (jharnu)

मोबाईल झर्यो (mobaail jharyo)

= The phone fell/ dropped.

                         . 

2) मेट्नु (metnu)

मैले बोर्डलाई मेटेँ (maile bord lai mete)

= I erased the board.

-

मेटिनु (metinu)

बोर्डको कुरा मेटियो (bord ko kura metiyo)

= Things on the board got erased.

_

IS THERE ANY WAY TO CONVERT THEM?

I am afraid there is no definite pattern between them given that such pairs are barely even common in the first place. However, if the intransitive verb’s root ends with a consonant sound, then it is likely it will either get converted into an ‘aa' sound (like father) or into an आउ (aau) sound.

_

HOW TO GUESS WITH PRECISION WHETHER A VERB IS TRANSITIVE OR NOT

The favourite technique of mine is to used the method I mentioned way earlier. However, if we are given an unknown Nepali verb without any translation, how can we guess?

Here are some tips for sorting that out:

1) If the verb ends with a ‘aaunu'  (आउनु) sound (like pakaaunu), it is likely to be transitive 

2) If a verb ends with a ‘inu' (इनु) sound (like metinu), it is likely to be intransitive

3) Generally, verbs that contain an आ (aa) sound around the end (like nikaalnu) are likely to be transitive 

However, there can be exceptions and it is best to consult a dictionary. For example, words that end with ‘aaunu' and describe emotions are usually intransitive [risaaunu, ramaaunu etc.]. Also, nuhaaunu (which means to bathe) is intransitive. The word’ birsinu' is transitive, even though it ends with inu.

The reason why verbs that end with aaunu are usually transitive is because aaunu is the base for making causative verbs and all causative verbs are transitive. More on this topic later.

_

THE VERNACULAR USE OF LE 

An interesting thing of le is its employment in Vernacular Speech. In everyday conversations, it is not uncommon to use le in certain intransitive verbs like ‘नुहाउनु’ or ‘थुक्नु’ at all, given the verb is conjugated into the past. For example, the following sentences are perfectly valid (and not weird sounding) in conversations:

रामले हिजो नुहायो (ram le hijo nuhayo)

= Ram bathed yesterday.

.

However, this doesn’t mean it is used with other intransitives like:

रामले हिजो सुत्यो (ram le hijo sutyo) [SOUNDS SO WEIRD!]

.

Sometimes le is also used with present simple tense:

रामले भात खान्छ (ram le bhat khancha)

= Ram eats rice.

.

However, these should be strictly limited to everyday speech only! I recommend not to use le even in such circumstances because…bad habits can always go awry. ;-)

____

That’s it about transitivity in Nepali! If there are any questions, do ask right away!

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EXERCISE

ARE THEY TRANSITIVE?

1. हिँड्नु (hidnu) [To walk]

2. सक्नु (saknu) [To finish]

3. किन्नु (kinnu) [To buy]

ANSWERS

1. No

2. Yes

3. Yes

Hey readers,

First, sorry for all the inactiveness. I had been unable to post since a long time due to lack of time. I am so sorry, I offer my sincerest apologies and hope you will forgive me for making you miss out so many updates and lessons! :-(

However, I don’t think I will post as much frequently as I did earlier and I don’t think I will be able to kickstart Word of the Day feature any time soon… 

Also, Happy Dashain to everyone! As you might have had known, Dashain…Nepal’s biggest (and the most anticipated) festival has arrived! It started day before yesterday [25th September 2014] but I had to sort a few things out before I turned my attention to this…website. You can read more about Dashain here: LINK

Q

Anonymous asked:

How do u spell family in nedali

A

Hello!

You spell it as परिवार (pa-ri-wa-r)

Have a good day!

Q

Anonymous asked:

What does "Sathi single ta ho ni" means?

A

Hello!

It means ‘Are you single?’

Have a good day!

Q

Anonymous asked:

Hi there, what a great web site! :) could you do me a favor and translate "Summit" for me? I do mean a mountain summit. I should have it in the original Nepali Font! Thank you!

A

Hello!

I think you are trying to say something like Mountain Peak, right?

So, a peak (of a mountain) would be चुचुरो (chuchuro) or शिखर (shikhar).

You can also say चुली (chuli) but chuli can also mean ‘Pile of X’.

Hope this helped!

Q

Anonymous asked:

What does "budget pass garnu" mean in english?

A

Hello,

Budget pass garnu means 'To pass budget'

literally ‘to do budget pass’

Have a good day!

Q

Anonymous asked:

Hello there n namaste :) I would like to ask you how to say 'hangout' in nepali? I was thinking, do nepali people have a name for 'hanging out'? - llke when you see a bunch of guys reading the newspaper in front of a shop early in the morning - or when people just 'hang out' on the streets doin nothin particular... both the verb 'hanging out', and the noun 'hangout'. danyabad!

A

Hello,

I am so sorry for the late reply, I don’t really have the time I used to have anymore. :-(

Hangout…hmm…I don’t really think there is an exact word like ‘Hangout’ in Nepali. A close approximation seems to be ‘orlyangtorlyang' but it means something like 'Wasting your time doing nothing particular' and I don't really think it really means 'Hangout’. It in fact is an onomatopoeic word and using it is a bit ‘tricky’.

A common answer to ‘What are you doing?’ is ‘etikai' which means something like 'oh, nothing in particular'. You may also say 'etikai' when you really don't want to reveal what you are doing (on a phone or chat) and like, you just shrug it off. Kind of like 'just…'

A: K gardai? (what are you doing?)

B: etikai (just…)

We use the verb ‘ghumnu' when we try to mean 'hanging out'. For example:

Ghumna jaaum = Let’s go hang out, (shall we?)

Derivatives of the verb ghumnu (which can also mean ‘to make rounds; to travel’) such as ‘ghum gham' means something like 'travelling' (very casual). 

Hanging out (verb) when used to mean ‘roaming around’ (like on a mall, park, zoo etc) is the verb ghumnu only.

For example: ma aile ma sathi haru sanga mall ma ghumdai chu = I am hanging out with my friends on the mall.

I hope this answered your question!