Release of Forums

Hey Everyone!

I just want to announce that NepalGo forums has been inaugerated today. You can register at the forums and you can start posting! :-) I believe that Forums will help to take communication to the next level.

Do ask questions! Learn more via forums. :-D

Forum Link: nepalgo.boards.net

Word of the Day (23rd April 2014)

Word of the Day

भुत्ते (bhutte) /adjective/ = Blunt  (like a blunt knife)

Word History 

From Sanskrit ‘भुक्त’ (bhukta)

Example Sentence

यो छुरी भुक्ते भइसक्यो, तिखारिद्यौ न (yo churi bhutte bhaisakyo, tikharidyau na)

= This Knife has become blunt, please sharpen it.

Usage 

Common

Short Story: The Vanity brought by Wealth

Today, on the occasion of Word Earth Day, I will tell you a story completely unrelated to it. Fanfares aside, the title of the story in Nepali is ‘धनको घमण्ड’ (dhan ko ghamanda) which literally means ‘Wealths Vanity' but is more close to saying 'Vanity brought by Wealth’.

This story is a GRADE 4 story and it contains elements related to Hindu Religion and mythology. Since you readers may not be acquainted with such, I will briefly tell who the characters are:

कुबेर (kuber) is the one who gets the attention here. He (his name is spelt like 'koo-bay-r') is portrayed as a rich god here.

गणेश (ganesh) is the Elephant-Head God (he has a head of an elephant). He is the son of Shiva and he eats a lot, especially a kind of sweet called ‘laddu’. He is an important deity; he is worshipped before any grand worshipping happens… like before you worship any other god, you have to worship him first.

शङ्कर (shangkar) is one of Lord Shiva’s many different names, others being नीलकण्ठ (nilkantha), महादेव (mahadev) etc. He is one of the Trinity Gods of Hinduism; he is the destroyer. That doesn’t mean he is evil, though. After all, everything created is destroyed someday, right? Since typing shankar is easier than shangkar, I will mention him as such. He stays in deep meditation forever in Mount Kailash. You can look up for more information by using a site named Wikipedia.

_______

STORY

देउताहरुमा कुबेर सबैभन्दा धनी थिए । कहिलेकहिँ देउताहरू सम्पत्तिको खाँचो पर्दा उनैकहाँ पुग्थे । कुबेर पनि मदत गर्थे। बिस्तारै कुबेरलाई धनको घमण्ड चढ्दै गयो। उनको घमण्डको बारेमा देउताहरुलाई थाहा नभएको होइन तैपनि सबै चुप थिए। गणेशचाहिँ कसरी कुबेरको घमण्ड तोडौँ भन्ने मौकाको खोजीमा थिए ।

एकदिन कुबेरले ठूलो भोजको आयोजना गरे । सबै देवीदेउताहरुलाई निम्तो गरियो । भोजमा बलवान् भीमसेनदेखि रिसाहा ऋषि दुर्वासासम्म थिए । सबै जना कुबेरको ठाँटबाँट देखेर दङ्ग परे । एकछिनपछि ठूलो भुँडी हल्लाउँदै गणेश पनि त्यहीँ पुगे । कुबेरले गणेशलाई देख्नेबित्तिकै बडो सम्मानका साथ भित्र लागे । उनलाई विभिन्न प्रकारका खानेकुरा खुवाउन थालियो । गणेश आफ्ना अगाडि भएका सबै खानेकुरा खान थाले । मान्छेहरुले पनि दौडादौड गर्दै खानेकुरा ल्याए । जति खानेकुरा ल्याए पनि गणेश एकै गाँसमा सिध्याइदिन्थे। गणेशलाई खानेकुरा थप्दाथप्दा पकाएका सबै खानेकुराहरु सकिए । अझ पनि गणेशको पेट भरिएको थिएन । उता भान्सामा अरु खानेकुरा तयार पारिन्दै थियो, यता गणेश अझै खानेकुरा ल्याऊ भनी माग्दै थिए ।

खानेकुरा ल्याउन ढिलो भयो भनी गणेश आफै भान्सामा पुगे । उनी पकाउँदा पकाउँदै खानेकुरा झिकेर खान थाले । कुबेरले गणेशसँग बिन्ती गर्दै भने, “अब त नपकाएको दालचामल मात्र छ । एकछिन पर्खिनुहोस् । ” गणेश झन् गर्जेर खोइ, कहाँ राख्या छ, त्यही भने पनि ल्याऊ भन्दै भण्डारतिर लागे । भण्डारमा भएका सबै अन्नपात उनले काँचै खाए । एकैछिनमा गणेशले भण्डार रित्तो पारे । आफ्नो त्यत्रो भण्डार पनि रित्तो भएको देखी कुबेरको हंसले ठाउँ छोड्यो । कुबेर डराउँदै भन्न थाले, ” अब त भण्डार सबै थोक सकियो, एकछिन पर्खिनुहोस् । म बाहिरबाट मगाउँछु । “ 

यो सुनेपछि गणेश झन् रिसाएर भन्न थाले, “तिम्रो भण्डारमा मलाई पेट भरी खुवाउने अन्नपात नभए किन डाक्यौ त? मलाई त ज्यादै भोक लागेको छ । तिमीलाई भए पनि खान्छु । “

गणेशको यो कुरा सुनेपछि कुबेर डरले भाग्न थाले । कुबेर अघिअघि भाग्दै गए भने गणेश पछिपछि गए । धेरै बेरको दौडादौडपछि कुबेर शङ्करलाई गुहार्न कैलाशमा पुगे । 
कुबेरलाई देखेपछि शङ्करले भने, कुबेर ! तिमी किन यसरी आत्तिएका छौ ? के भयो ?” कुबेरले हात जोड्दै भने, ”प्रभु, मैले बिराएँ, मेरो ज्यान बचाउनुहोस् । मैले बित्थामा धनको घमण्ड गरेँ । ” शङ्करले गणेशलाई पनि सोधे, “गणेश, कुबेर लाई किन लखेटेको ?” गणेशले भने, “कुबेर ले मलाई निम्तो दिएर पेटभरि खान दिएनन् । यिनले मेरो अपमान गरे । त्यसैले यिनलाई लखेटेको हुँ ।”

"पेटभरि खान पाइएन भन्दैमा कुबेर जस्तो धनीलाई लखेट्नु हुन्छ त ? धनीको त मान पो गर्नुपर्छ त! कुबेरलाई नलखेट । तिमी भित्र जाऊ र आमासित मागेर पेट भरी खाऊ ।" शङ्करले गणेशलाई सम्झाएर भित्र पठाए । अब भने कुबेरलाई आफूमा घमण्ड चढेको थाहा भयो ।

कुबेर घमण्ड नगर्ने प्रतिज्ञा गरी त्यहाँबाट फर्के ।

_________

MEANING

देउताहरुमा कुबेर सबैभन्दा धनी थिए । (deuta`haru`ma kuber sabaibhanda dhani thie)

= Among Deities, Kuber was the richest.

                                                                                                               .

कहिलेकहिँ देउताहरू सम्पत्तिको खाँचो पर्दा उनैकहाँ पुग्थे । (kahilekahi deuta`haru sampatti`ko khacho parda unai`kaha pugthe) 

= When (other) Gods used to need some wealth, they used to reach out to him (only).

                                                                                                               .

कुबेर पनि मदत गर्थे। (kuber pani madat garthe)

= Kuber also used to help (them).

                                                                                                               .

बिस्तारै कुबेरलाई धनको घमण्ड चढ्दै गयो। (bistarai kuber`lai dhan`ko ghamanda chadhdai gayo)

= Slowly the vanity brought by wealth climbed up on Kuber. 

                                                                                                               .

उनको घमण्डको बारेमा देउताहरुलाई थाहा नभएको होइन तैपनि सबै चुप थिए। (un’ko ghamanda`ko bare`ma deuta`haru`lai thaha nabhaeko hoina tai`pani sabai chup thie)

= It was not that the other gods were not aware of his vanity but rather they were shut (about it).

                                                                                                               .

गणेशचाहिँ कसरी कुबेरको घमण्ड तोडौँ भन्ने मौकाको खोजीमा थिए । (ganesh`chahi kasari kuber`ko ghamanda todau bhanne mauka`ko khoji`ma thie)

= As of Ganesh, he was searching for an opportunity where he could break Kuber’s Vanity. 

                                                                                                               .

एकदिन कुबेरले ठूलो भोजको आयोजना गरे । (ekdin kuber`le thulo bhoj`ko aayojana gare)

= One day Kuber organized a big Feast.

                                                                                                               .

सबै देवीदेउताहरुलाई निम्तो गरियो । (sabai devideuta`haru`lai nimto gariyo)

= Every Gods and Goddesses were invited.

                                                                                                               .

भोजमा बलवान् भीमसेनदेखि रिसाहा ऋषि दुर्वासासम्म थिए । (bhoj`ma balawan bhimsen`dekhi risaha rishi durvasa`samma thie)

= From the incredibly strong Bhimsen till the belligerent Sage Durvasa, (All was there) in the feast. 

                                                                                                               .

सबैजना कुबेरको ठाँटबाँट देखेर दङ्ग परे । (sabai`jana kuber`ko thatbat dekhera danga pare)

= Everyone was astounded by Kuber’s imposingness.

                                                                                                               .

एकछिनपछि ठूलो भुँडी हल्लाउँदै गणेश पनि त्यहीँ पुगे । (ekchin`pachi thulo bhudi hallaudai ganesh pani tyahi puge)

= After a while, the big-bellied Ganesh came to that place, with his belly wiggling.

                                                                                                               .

कुबेरले गणेशलाई देख्नेबित्तिकै बडो सम्मानका साथ भित्र लागे । (kuber`le ganesh`lai dekhnebittikai bado  sammaan`ka sath bhitra lage)

= As soon as Kuber saw Ganesh, he took him inside with great respect.

                                                                                                               .

उनलाई विभिन्न प्रकारका खानेकुरा खुवाउन थालियो । (un`lai bibhinna prakar`ka khanekura khuwauna thaliyo)

= He was being  fed many varieties of Foodstuff(s).

                                                                                                               .

गणेश आफ्ना अगाडि भएका सबै खानेकुरा खान थाले । (ganesh aafna agadi bhaeka sabai khanekura khana thale)

= Ganesh started to eat every food in front of him.

                                                                                                               .

मान्छेहरुले पनि दौडादौड गर्दै खानेकुरा ल्याए । (manche`haru`le pani daudadaud gardai khanekura lyae)

= People too started to run here and there to bring (more) food.

                                                                                                               .

जति खानेकुरा ल्याए पनि गणेश एकै गाँसमा सिध्याइदिन्थे। (jati khanekura lyae pani ganesh ekai gaas`ma sidhyaidinthe)

= No matter how much foodstuff(s) were brought, Ganesh ate (them all) with one breath.

                                                                                                               .

गणेशलाई खानेकुरा थप्दाथप्दा पकाएका सबै खानेकुराहरु सकिए । (ganesh`lai khanekura thapdathapda pakaeka sabai khanekura`haru sakie)

= After keep re-serving (more) foodstuff(s) to Ganesh, all of the foodstuffs finished.

                                                                                                               .

अझ पनि गणेशको पेट भरिएको थिएन । (ajha pani ganesh`ko pet bharieko thiena)

= But still Ganesh’s stomach wasn’t filled.

                                                                                                               .

उता भान्सामा अरु खानेकुरा तयार पारिन्दै थियो, यता गणेश अझै खानेकुरा ल्याऊ भनी माग्दै थिए । (uta bhansa`ma aru khanekura tayaar parindai thiyo, yata ganesh ajhai khanekura lyau bhani maagdai thie)

= On one hand more food was being prepared on the Kitchen, on the other Ganesh was asking for more food.

                                                                                                               .

खानेकुरा ल्याउन ढिलो भयो भनी गणेश आफै भान्सामा पुगे । (khanekura lyauna dhilo bhayo bhani ganesh aafai bhansa`ma puge)

= By saying that the food was being brought too slowly, Ganesh himself went to the Kitchen.

                                                                                                               .

उनी पकाउँदा पकाउँदै खानेकुरा झिकेर खान थाले । (uni pakauda pakaudai khanekura jhikera khana thale)

= He started to eat the food which was cooking (at that time).

                                                                                                               .

कुबेरले गणेशसँग बिन्ती गर्दै भने, “अब त नपकाएको दालचामल मात्र छ । एकछिन पर्खिनुहोस् । “ (kuber`le ganesh`sanga binti gardai bhane, “aba ta napakaaeko daamchamal matra cha . ekchin parkhinuhos . “)

= Kuber pleaded to Ganesh saying, “Now the only thing left is the uncooked Lentils and Rice. Please wait for sometime. “

                                                                                                               .

गणेश झन् गर्जेर खोइ, कहाँ राख्या छ, त्यही भने पनि ल्याऊ भन्दै भण्डारतिर लागे । (ganesh jhan garjera khoi, kaha rakhya cha, tyahi bhane pani lyau bhandai bhandaar`tira laage)

= Ganesh became more infuriated, saying where, where is it kept, (even if it is that) I will eat that and then headed towards the depot.

                                                                                                               .

भण्डारमा भएका सबै अन्नपात उनले काँचै खाए । (bhadar`ma bhaeka sabai annapaat un`le kachai khae)

= He ate all the grains in the depot raw.

                                                                                                               .

एकैछिनमा गणेशले भण्डार रित्तो पारे । (ekaichin`ma ganesh`le bhandar ritto pare)

= Ganesh emptied the Depot in an instant.

                                                                                                               .

आफ्नो त्यत्रो भण्डार पनि रित्तो भएको देखी कुबेरको हंसले ठाउँ छोड्यो । (aafno tyatro bhandar pani ritto bhaeko dekhi kuber`ko hangsa`le thau chodyo)

= By seeing his that (big) depot being emptied, Kuber’s senses left place(s).

                                                                                                               .

कुबेर डराउँदै भन्न थाले, ” अब त भण्डार सबै थोक सकियो, एकछिन पर्खिनुहोस् । म बाहिरबाट मगाउँछु । “ (kuber daraudai bhanna thale, “aba ta bhandar sabai thok sakiyo, ekchin parkhinuhos. ma bahira`bata magaauchu”)

= Kuber started to say frighteningly, “Now the depot, everything is finished, please wait for sometimee. I will bring something from outside.”

                                                                                                               .

यो सुनेपछि गणेश झन् रिसाएर भन्न थाले, “तिम्रो भण्डारमा मलाई पेट भरी खुवाउने अन्नपात नभए किन डाक्यौ त? मलाई त ज्यादै भोक लागेको छ । तिमीलाई भए पनि खान्छु । “ (yo sunepachi ganesh jhan risaera bhanna thale, “timro bhandar`ma malai pet bhari khuwaune annapaat nabhae ina daakyau ta? ma`lai ta jyadai bhok laageko cha. timi`lai bhae pani khanchu”)

= After hearing this Ganesh became even more angry and started to say, “If your depot did not have enough grains to fill my Stomach then why did you invite me? I am feeling very hungry. Even if it is you, I will eat it.”

                                                                                                               .

गणेशको यो कुरा सुनेपछि कुबेर डरले भाग्न थाले । (ganesh`ko yo kura sunepachi kuber dar`le bhaagna thale)

= After hearing this dialogue of Ganesh, Kuber started to run in fear.

                                                                                                               .

कुबेर अघिअघि भाग्दै गए भने गणेश पछिपछि गए । (kuber aghiaghi bhagdai gae bhane ganesh pachipachi gae)

= While Kuber was in front, Ganesh was in the back.

                                                                                                               .

धेरै बेरको दौडादौडपछि कुबेर शङ्करलाई गुहार्न कैलाशमा पुगे । (dherai ber`ko daudadaud`pachi kuber sankar`lai guhaarna kailash`ma puge)

= After a while of Run-and-run, Kuber reached to Shankar at Kailash [a mountain].

                                                                                                               .

कुबेरलाई  देखेपछि शङ्करले भने, “कुबेर ! तिमी किन यसरी आत्तिएका छौ ? के भयो ?” (kuber`lai dekhepachi shankar`le bhane,”kuber! timi kina yasari aattieka chau? ke bhayo?”)

= After seen Kuber, Sankar said, “Kuber! Why are you so bewildered? What happened?”

                                                                                                               .

कुबेरले हात जोड्दै भने, ”प्रभु, मैले बिराएँ, मेरो ज्यान बचाउनुहोस् । मैले बित्थामा धनको घमण्ड गरेँ ।” ( kuber`le haat joddai bhane, “prabhu, maile birae, mero jyan bachaunuhos. maile bittha`ma dhan`ko ghamanda gare”)

= Kuber clasped his hands and said “Good lord, I have sinned, please save my life! I have inopportunely boasted of my wealth!”

                                                                                                               .

शङ्करले गणेशलाई पनि सोधे, “गणेश, कुबेरलाई किन लखेटेको ?” (shankar`le ganesh`lai pani sodhe, “ganesh, kuber`lai kina lakheteko?”)

= Sankar also asked Ganesh, “Ganesh, why are you chasing Kuber?”

                                                                                                               .

गणेशले भने, “कुबेरले मलाई निम्तो दिएर पेट भरी खान दिएनन् । यिनले मेरो अपमान गरे । त्यसैले यिनलाई लखेटेको हुँ ।” (ganesh`le bhane, “kuber`le malai nimto diera pet bhari khana dienan. yin`le mero apamaan gare. tyasaile yin`lai lakheteko hu”)

= Ganesh said, “Kuber invited me but did not give enough to fill my stomach. He insulted me. That’s why I am chasing him.”

                                                                                                               .

"पेट भरी खान पाइएन भन्दैमा कुबेर जस्तो धनीलाई लखेट्नु हुन्छ त ? धनीको त मान पो गर्नुपर्छ त! कुबेरलाई नलखेट । तिमी भित्र जाऊ र आमासित मागेर पेट भरी खाऊ ।" शङ्करले गणेशलाई सम्झाएर भित्र पठाए । (“pet bhari khana paaiena bhandai`ma kuber jasto dhani`lai lakhetnu huncha ta? dhani`ko ta maan po garnuparcha ta! kuber`lai nalakheta. timi bhitra jau ra aama`sita maagera pet bhari khau.” shankar`le ganesh`lai samjhaaera bhitra pathae)

= “Just because you did not eat enough to fill your stomach doesn’t mean that you should ‘chase’ someone rich like Kuber, right? You should ‘respect’ the rich! Don’t chase Kuber (now). You go inside and ask mother for food, then eat enough till your stomach is full” said Shankar and sent him inside.

                                                                                                               .

अब भने कुबेरलाई आफूमा घमण्ड चढेको थाहा भयो । (aba bhane kuber`lai aafu`ma ghamanda chadheko thaha bhayo)

= Now Kuber realized his Vanity that had climbed inside him.

                                                                                                               .

कुबेर घमण्ड नगर्ने प्रतिज्ञा गरी त्यहाँबाट फर्के । (kuber ghamanda nagarne pratigya gari tyaha`bata pharke)

= Kuber made a vow to never be Vain and left from there.

________________________

VOCABULARY

देउता (deuta) = Deity; God

सम्पत्ति (sampatti) = Property; Wealth

खाँचो (khacho) = Need

मदत (madat) = Help

बिस्तारै (bistarai) = Slowly

घमण्ड (ghamanda) = Vainity

मौका (mauka) = Opportunity

भोज (bhoj) = Feast

आयोजना (aayojana) = Organize

निम्तो (nimto) = Invitation

बलवान् (balwaan) = Brute; Strong

रिसाहा (risaha) = Belligerent; Irate

ऋषि (rishi) = Sage

ठाँटबाँट (thatbhat) = Boasting; Imposingness

दङ्ग (danga) + [parnu] = [to be] Astonished

भुँडी (bhudi) = Belly; Stomach

सम्मान (samman) = Honour; Respect

गाँस (gaas) = (here) breath       [like ate in one breath]

भान्सा (baansa) = Kitchen

बिन्ती (binti) = Request

दालचामल (daalchamal) = दाल (daal /lentil) + चामल (chamal /rice)

अन्नपात (annapaat) = Grains

भण्डार (bhandar) = Storage; Godown; Depot

रित्तो (ritto) = Empty

हंस (hangsa) = Soul; Consiousness

पेट (pet) = Stomach

प्रभु (prabhu) = Lord

बित्था (bittha) = A word with meaning similar to ‘without any reason’

अपमान (apamaan) = Insult  [अप (apa) = Anti- + मान (maan) = Respect]

प्रतिज्ञा (pratigya) = Vow; Commitment

_______________

QUESTIONS

1. Correct the following spellings, which have been spelt incorrectly:

a) भन्दार         b) हङ्स            c) शङ्खर 

2. Is the word घमण्ड (ghamanda) a noun or an adjective? 

3. Kuber displayed one of the the seven deadly sins (vain/ pride). As a god, was it fit for him to show it? What really caused him to display such vanity?

4. The word रित्तो (ritto) means ‘खाली’ (khali) in Nepali. How does ‘खाली’ (khalii) differ from खालि (khali) in terms of their meanings?

5. Ganesh probably suffered from diarrhea after overeating a lot. However, as a god, he probably possessed magical powers to contain so much food, or perhaps not. If he did suffer from the condition, suggest medicines which may alleviate his condition. (will Jeevanjal be enough?)

______________

ANSWERS (some not provided)

1. a) भण्डार 

1. b) हंस 

1. c) शङ्कर 

2. Noun

3. No, it is not a quality of a divine. His wealth caused him to believe that he was the most powerful (due to his financial status) and hence his vanity

4. खाली (khalii) means ‘Empty’ whereas खालि (khali) can mean ‘only; always’

Word of the Day (22nd April 2014)

Word of the Day

मनस्थिति (manasthiti) /noun/ = The status of your heart/ mind

Word History (if available)

From मन (man) which means ‘Feeling/ Heart/ Mind’ and स्थिति (sthiti) which means ‘Status’

Example Sentence

उसको मनस्थिति मैले बुझ्नसकिन (usko mansathiti maile bujhnasakina)

= I couldn’t understand the situation of his feelings.

Usage

Not an everyday conversation word

Word of the Day: 21st April 2014

Word of the Day

अविस्मरणीय (awismaraniya) /adjective/ = Unforgettable

Word History (if available)

From Sanskrit, ’smaran' - Recollection 

Example Sentence

यसपटकको दसैंको तास खेलाई वास्तवमै अविस्मरणीय छ। (yaspatak ko dashain ko taas khelai bastabmai abismaraniya cha)

= The gambling game of this time’s Dashain is pretty much unforgettable.

Usage

Technical/ Uncommon

Word of the Day (20th April 2014)

Word of the Day

परिश्रम (parishram) /noun/ = Hard Work; Labour; Diligence

Word History (if available)

From sanskrit ‘pariśrama' meaning 'labour

Example Sentence

परिश्रमको फल मीठो हुन्छ (parishram ko phal mitho huncha)

= The fruits of labour are sweet.

Usage

Uncommon

Word of the Day (19th April 2014)

Word of the Day

काल (kaal) /Noun/ = 1. Death          2. Tense

Word History (if available)

From Sanskrit

Example Sentence

1. भूत कालमा परिवर्तन गर (bhut kaal ma pariwartan gara)

= Convert it into Past Tense.

2. अस्ति भेटेको केटाको त काल आएछ हिजो! मरेछ नी बिचारा त! (asti bheteko keta ko ta kaal aaecha hijo! marecha ni bichara ta!)

= That guy who (I) met day before yesterday, he died yesterday! Died, that poor guy!

Usage

Common

Word of the Day (18th April 2014)

Word of the Day

पुष्प (pushpa) /noun/ = Flower

Word History (if available)

From Sanskrit

Example Sentence

पुष्पको बास्ना मनपर्छ (pushpa ko basna manparcha)

=  (I) like the smell of Flower(s).

Usage

Uncommon

Applying Conjugated Verbs in Sentences: Intermediate

So you have learnt how to make simple sentences with the right conjugations in the previous chapter, which was published around seven months ago. Let’s learn how to use Agyaat and Habitual Form of Verb! Also, we will learn how ‘Present’ tense is used for ‘future tense’.

____

INTRODUCTION

So, you probably know that Nepali is a SUBJECT + OBJECT + VERB language. That means, the verb appears in the end. So “John oranges ate " would be a normal sentence in Nepali.

Last time, what we saw was sentences in Simple Tenses only. This time, we will learn a new aspect of Verb that is not present in English, the ‘agyaat' or 'Unknown'. 

____

THE UNKNOWN ASPECT 

Perhaps one of the more difficult things to master in Nepali (for a learner) is the 'Unknown Aspect’. The unknown aspect is known as ‘अज्ञात भूत’ (agyaat bhut) in Nepali. The unknown aspect belongs to the family of Past Tense(s), hence agyaat bhut describes the past.

Do you know what it is? It basically encompasses things that were not aware to a subject but now the subject is aware of it. That thing can be anything, a physical notion or an abstract one. It refers to the state indicated by the verb which was not ‘known’ prior to the speaker till this this current time.

There is no translation for such type of conjugations in English and hence, translators are forced to paraphrase things to convey the same meaning. Take the sentence: 

रामले भात खाएछ (ram le bhat khaecha)

= Ram has eaten rice, I see. 

                                                                                                    .

That word ‘khaecha' is in the unknown aspect. Prior to this report, the reporter was not aware of 'Ram' eating Rice. Although Ram has already eaten rice, the reporter did not know it. Other people might have known that action but the speaker did not. However, the reporter finds out and he exclaims 'Ram has eaten rice, I see' or 'Ram has eaten rice, I didn't know’.

So basically, the reporter was unaware of the whole situation! Someone, he finds out and hence he exclaims that statement.

                                                                                                     .

ऊ काठमाडौंबाट रहेछ (u kathmadau bata rahecha)

= He is from Kathmandu, I see. 

                                                                                                     .

Nepali doesn’t use the verb ‘हुनु’ (hunu) when describing unknown aspect, if you mean to make sentences like above. Rather, the verb रहनु (rahanu) is used. That is because, the past tenses of हुनु (hunu) are भयो (bhayo) and थियो (thiyo) which…kind of don’t make sense because they have a meaning of something like ‘became' and 'existed' respectively. 

                                                                                                    .

परिक्षा सजिलो रहेछ (pariksha sajilo rahecha)

= The exam was easy, I didn’t think so. 

Now, when you say the above, the speaker had expected the Exam to be ‘difficult’. However, he later finds out that it was ‘not’ difficult. Hence, he later tells his friend that ‘the exams was easy’. The unknown aspect dictates that prior to the knowledge of the situation to the reporter, that event and its aspects remain unknown to the reporter even though the event has already been performed. Now, the reporter can be anyone at anytime, but the unknown aspect applies in those conditions.

Suppose you were walking on the street when suddenly you found out that you have forgotten to bring your cellphone! You panic and then say ‘मोबाइल ल्याउन बिर्सेछु!’ (mobail lyauna birsechu) which means ‘I forgot to bring my Cellphone! Oh no!’ Now, you are physically present on a different location, away from your Phone however the cellphone is yours right? You do seem to remember fiddling with it during the morning. However, you were not aware of the fact that you had forgotten your phone home. You were walking on the streets, oblivious to that fact. In fact, you might even be confident that your phone was in your pocket (a false knowledge). Now, you reach for your pockets but alas! No phone and hence you exclaim that sentence 'मोबाइल ल्याउन बिर्सेछु!'. Prior to your knowledge, the phone 'existed' in your pockets but then after you know the situation, you now know that the phone was never there in the first place. The unknown aspect is that, prior to the report or the knowledge, the condition was unknown to you. Here, the condition of the phone being missing was unknown to you. 

So, did you get the unknown aspect in Nepali?

                                                                                                    .

तिमीले खाना खान बिर्सेछौ (timi le khana khana birsechau)

= You forgot to eat your food, it seems.

                                                                                                    .

Oh my god! How can you even forget to eat! God hath saidth in the ten eleven commandments-th that thou shalt never forget to eat! 

Okay, so the sentence says what the translation says. Dissecting the parts, the subject here ‘You’ (तिमी) is not aware of the fact that he has not eaten. However, the speaker becomes aware that he hasn’t eaten and hence conveys the said message to the subject. So, can you guess how he would reply (without going outside the box)?

                                                                                                    .

ए! मैले त खानै बिर्सेछु (e! maile ta khanai birsechu)

= Oh! (it seems) I have forgotten to eat!

                                                                                                    .

So, here he is now aware of the fact and reprimands himself. Prior to the reporting done by someone else, the subject himself wasn’t aware of the situation. What happens after that? The subject will probably help himself with food. Don’t ask me, and don’t use too much of that logic!

                                                                                                    .

Okay, one last example and I expect you to understand the Unknown Aspect in Nepali:

तिमीले लेखेनछौ (timi le lekhenachau)

= (It seems) you haven’t written.

                                                                                                    .

Wait, this doesn’t look like Unknown Aspect at all? But in fact, it is. It is in the unknown aspect, but the mood is in Negative. Put bluntly, this sentence was composed using Negative Conjugation. What happens when we use negative conjugation in Sentences then? Does it become ‘Known Aspect’?

Put straightforward, no. It doesn’t become ‘Known Aspect’. It rather denotes negative actions done in the past but now that the reporter knows about it. So, prior to the knowledge of the speaker, the ‘non-writing’ even had already been done, just the speaker wasn’t aware of it. Now, the speaker is aware of it, the speaker points out to the subject ‘तिमी’ that he hasn’t written yet. It is just the event carrying negativity. The event is done technically, but that event is ‘not do = write' instead of the positive 'do = write’. 

_______________________

THE PAST HABITUAL TENSE

The Past Habitual Tense is called ‘अभ्यस्त भूत’ (abhyasta bhut) in Nepali. Some people also call it ‘Past Imperfective Tense' but I don't use the moniker. So, it basically indicates regular occurrence of a certain action in the past. Kind of like ‘used to eat’ in the sentence ‘I used to eat’. 

The action may or may not be done now, however the doer of that action used to do it habitually (at regular occurrences) during the past. Understand this concept is very easy, because it does have an equivalent (Albeit using auxiliaries) in English. The auxiliaries that show habituality in English is ‘Used to’ or ‘would’, as in ‘I used to eat rice’ or ‘I would eat early’.

Take the following sentence:

जन भात खान्थ्यो (jan bhat khanthyo)

= John used to eat rice.

                                                                                                    .

Just as a note, subjects in sentences which uses past habitual tenses do not take the particle ले (le). Okay, so here, the subject ‘John’ did an event in the past at regular occurrences. So, he ‘Used to’ do the action. The action is ‘to eat rice’. Therefore, he used to eat rice during the past in regular intervenes. 

_

ऊ हिमाल चड्थ्यो (u himal chadthyo)

= He used to climb mountains.

                                                                                                    .

Not so difficult to understand, right? However, if we use negative conjugation, then what will the results be? 

जन भात खादैनथ्यो  (jan bhat khadainathyo)

= John did not used to eat rice.

                                                                                                    .

So, using Negative Conjugation denotes actions that was not done at regular occurrences.

________________________

HOW DOES PRESENT TENSE DENOTE THE FUTURE?

Time flows on. In English, when you describe future events, you say ‘X will Y’. The word ‘will’ denotes that an action Y will be done by X in some point in the future. Nepali too, has a future tense. However, people usually do not use future tense to denote the future at all! People use Present Tense. Now, an interesting question arises. Even when there is a future tense, why do people use present tense then?

Read the first line! Time flows on. 1 second ago, it becomes Past; time 1 second later is the future, however we reach future quick enough. There is no absolute ‘Present’. As soon as the present happens, it becomes past. The ‘future’ soon becomes present! 

What I mean to say is that, you cannot take any frame of time as your ‘absolute present’. The future soon becomes present after all! However, the present was a ‘future’ some time ago, right? Past is past, but present and the future keeps moving. So, this moving timeline sends its roots in Nepali…the present was after all, future at some point in time. 

Well, that was a horrible explanation (at least to me), so long story short Present Tense also denotes future tense. However, by Present Tense I meant ‘Simple Present Tense’. I think I forgot to mention that…Continuous Tense doesn’t denote the future partly because it describes a continuous event happening right now, whereas Present Perfect Tense denotes an event that has already been completed. *phew*

Now, how do you differentiate? Through Context and common sense. When you say ‘म भोलि भात खान्छु’ (ma bholi bhat khanchu) [I + tomorrow + Rice + Eat), you automatically understand that ‘You will eat rice tomorrow’. How can we describe tomorrow using today, right? In fact, simple present is seldom used as such  (a bit more than seldom…). It is often used in the context of present habitual tense.

Hence, म भात खान्छु (ma bhat khanchu) can also mean ‘I eat rice regularly’.

So, when you say ‘म अमेरिका जान्छु’ (ma amerika janchu), people understand by the context that you will go to America.

__________________________

SUMMARY

  • The Unknown Aspect denotes the state indicated by the verb which was not ‘known’ prior to the speaker till this this current time.
  • The Past Habitual Tense denotes an action which was done at regular occurrences during the past. 
  • Simple Past Tense can denote Future Tense and Present Habitual Tense.

_________________________________________________________________

So, that is all you have to know in the intermediate step! It wasn’t so hard right? By this time, you are expected to understand basic sentences and be able to read and write Devanagari. Remember, in order to learn a language, you need to be fluent on the script too! You cannot depend on Romanization forever!

And finally, as always, if you feel some things need to be explained to you, then you can contact me anytime.

__________________________ 

EXERCISES

A. TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1. रुख अग्लो रहेछ (rukh aglo rahecha)

2. घाम र छायाँ साथी हुन गर्दथ्यो । (gham ra chaya sathi huna gardathyo)

B. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE CORRECT VERB FORM

1. ऊ भात  _________  (खान्थ्यो / खान्थे )

2. मेरी मेचमा __________  (बसेछ / बसिछे )

C. CONVERT THE VERBS INTO WHAT THE BRACKET DENOTES

1. सक्नु (Past Habitual Tense, 2nd Person, Low Respect, Masculine, positive)

2.  मार्नु (Unknown Aspect, 1st Person, Plural, negative)

____________

ANSWERS

A. 1. The tree was tall, I didn’t know.       (might vary among translators)

A. 2. The sun and the shadow used to be friends.    (as above)

B. 1. खान्थ्यो

B. 2. बसिछे

C. 1. सक्थिस् 

C. 2. मारेनछौँ 

Word of the Day (17th April 2014)

Word of the Day

खत (khat) /noun/ = Scar

Word History (if available)

From the Sanskrit word ‘क्षत’ (kṣata) which means ‘Injury; Wound

Example Sentence

यो खत कहिल्यै जाँदैन  (yo khat kahilyai jadaina)

= This scar never goes away.

Usage

Common