Word of the Day (20th April 2014)

Word of the Day

परिश्रम (parishram) /noun/ = Hard Work; Labour; Diligence

Word History (if available)

From sanskrit ‘pariśrama' meaning 'labour

Example Sentence

परिश्रमको फल मीठो हुन्छ (parishram ko phal mitho huncha)

= The fruits of labour are sweet.

Usage

Uncommon

Word of the Day (19th April 2014)

Word of the Day

काल (kaal) /Noun/ = 1. Death          2. Tense

Word History (if available)

From Sanskrit

Example Sentence

1. भूत कालमा परिवर्तन गर (bhut kaal ma pariwartan gara)

= Convert it into Past Tense.

2. अस्ति भेटेको केटाको त काल आएछ हिजो! मरेछ नी बिचारा त! (asti bheteko keta ko ta kaal aaecha hijo! marecha ni bichara ta!)

= That guy who (I) met day before yesterday, he died yesterday! Died, that poor guy!

Usage

Common

Word of the Day (18th April 2014)

Word of the Day

पुष्प (pushpa) /noun/ = Flower

Word History (if available)

From Sanskrit

Example Sentence

पुष्पको बास्ना मनपर्छ (pushpa ko basna manparcha)

=  (I) like the smell of Flower(s).

Usage

Uncommon

Applying Conjugated Verbs in Sentences: Intermediate

So you have learnt how to make simple sentences with the right conjugations in the previous chapter, which was published around seven months ago. Let’s learn how to use Agyaat and Habitual Form of Verb! Also, we will learn how ‘Present’ tense is used for ‘future tense’.

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INTRODUCTION

So, you probably know that Nepali is a SUBJECT + OBJECT + VERB language. That means, the verb appears in the end. So “John oranges ate " would be a normal sentence in Nepali.

Last time, what we saw was sentences in Simple Tenses only. This time, we will learn a new aspect of Verb that is not present in English, the ‘agyaat' or 'Unknown'. 

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THE UNKNOWN ASPECT 

Perhaps one of the more difficult things to master in Nepali (for a learner) is the 'Unknown Aspect’. The unknown aspect is known as ‘अज्ञात भूत’ (agyaat bhut) in Nepali. The unknown aspect belongs to the family of Past Tense(s), hence agyaat bhut describes the past.

Do you know what it is? It basically encompasses things that were not aware to a subject but now the subject is aware of it. That thing can be anything, a physical notion or an abstract one. It refers to the state indicated by the verb which was not ‘known’ prior to the speaker till this this current time.

There is no translation for such type of conjugations in English and hence, translators are forced to paraphrase things to convey the same meaning. Take the sentence: 

रामले भात खाएछ (ram le bhat khaecha)

= Ram has eaten rice, I see. 

                                                                                                    .

That word ‘khaecha' is in the unknown aspect. Prior to this report, the reporter was not aware of 'Ram' eating Rice. Although Ram has already eaten rice, the reporter did not know it. Other people might have known that action but the speaker did not. However, the reporter finds out and he exclaims 'Ram has eaten rice, I see' or 'Ram has eaten rice, I didn't know’.

So basically, the reporter was unaware of the whole situation! Someone, he finds out and hence he exclaims that statement.

                                                                                                     .

ऊ काठमाडौंबाट रहेछ (u kathmadau bata rahecha)

= He is from Kathmandu, I see. 

                                                                                                     .

Nepali doesn’t use the verb ‘हुनु’ (hunu) when describing unknown aspect, if you mean to make sentences like above. Rather, the verb रहनु (rahanu) is used. That is because, the past tenses of हुनु (hunu) are भयो (bhayo) and थियो (thiyo) which…kind of don’t make sense because they have a meaning of something like ‘became' and 'existed' respectively. 

                                                                                                    .

परिक्षा सजिलो रहेछ (pariksha sajilo rahecha)

= The exam was easy, I didn’t think so. 

Now, when you say the above, the speaker had expected the Exam to be ‘difficult’. However, he later finds out that it was ‘not’ difficult. Hence, he later tells his friend that ‘the exams was easy’. The unknown aspect dictates that prior to the knowledge of the situation to the reporter, that event and its aspects remain unknown to the reporter even though the event has already been performed. Now, the reporter can be anyone at anytime, but the unknown aspect applies in those conditions.

Suppose you were walking on the street when suddenly you found out that you have forgotten to bring your cellphone! You panic and then say ‘मोबाइल ल्याउन बिर्सेछु!’ (mobail lyauna birsechu) which means ‘I forgot to bring my Cellphone! Oh no!’ Now, you are physically present on a different location, away from your Phone however the cellphone is yours right? You do seem to remember fiddling with it during the morning. However, you were not aware of the fact that you had forgotten your phone home. You were walking on the streets, oblivious to that fact. In fact, you might even be confident that your phone was in your pocket (a false knowledge). Now, you reach for your pockets but alas! No phone and hence you exclaim that sentence 'मोबाइल ल्याउन बिर्सेछु!'. Prior to your knowledge, the phone 'existed' in your pockets but then after you know the situation, you now know that the phone was never there in the first place. The unknown aspect is that, prior to the report or the knowledge, the condition was unknown to you. Here, the condition of the phone being missing was unknown to you. 

So, did you get the unknown aspect in Nepali?

                                                                                                    .

तिमीले खाना खान बिर्सेछौ (timi le khana khana birsechau)

= You forgot to eat your food, it seems.

                                                                                                    .

Oh my god! How can you even forget to eat! God hath saidth in the ten eleven commandments-th that thou shalt never forget to eat! 

Okay, so the sentence says what the translation says. Dissecting the parts, the subject here ‘You’ (तिमी) is not aware of the fact that he has not eaten. However, the speaker becomes aware that he hasn’t eaten and hence conveys the said message to the subject. So, can you guess how he would reply (without going outside the box)?

                                                                                                    .

ए! मैले त खानै बिर्सेछु (e! maile ta khanai birsechu)

= Oh! (it seems) I have forgotten to eat!

                                                                                                    .

So, here he is now aware of the fact and reprimands himself. Prior to the reporting done by someone else, the subject himself wasn’t aware of the situation. What happens after that? The subject will probably help himself with food. Don’t ask me, and don’t use too much of that logic!

                                                                                                    .

Okay, one last example and I expect you to understand the Unknown Aspect in Nepali:

तिमीले लेखेनछौ (timi le lekhenachau)

= (It seems) you haven’t written.

                                                                                                    .

Wait, this doesn’t look like Unknown Aspect at all? But in fact, it is. It is in the unknown aspect, but the mood is in Negative. Put bluntly, this sentence was composed using Negative Conjugation. What happens when we use negative conjugation in Sentences then? Does it become ‘Known Aspect’?

Put straightforward, no. It doesn’t become ‘Known Aspect’. It rather denotes negative actions done in the past but now that the reporter knows about it. So, prior to the knowledge of the speaker, the ‘non-writing’ even had already been done, just the speaker wasn’t aware of it. Now, the speaker is aware of it, the speaker points out to the subject ‘तिमी’ that he hasn’t written yet. It is just the event carrying negativity. The event is done technically, but that event is ‘not do = write' instead of the positive 'do = write’. 

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THE PAST HABITUAL TENSE

The Past Habitual Tense is called ‘अभ्यस्त भूत’ (abhyasta bhut) in Nepali. Some people also call it ‘Past Imperfective Tense' but I don't use the moniker. So, it basically indicates regular occurrence of a certain action in the past. Kind of like ‘used to eat’ in the sentence ‘I used to eat’. 

The action may or may not be done now, however the doer of that action used to do it habitually (at regular occurrences) during the past. Understand this concept is very easy, because it does have an equivalent (Albeit using auxiliaries) in English. The auxiliaries that show habituality in English is ‘Used to’ or ‘would’, as in ‘I used to eat rice’ or ‘I would eat early’.

Take the following sentence:

जन भात खान्थ्यो (jan bhat khanthyo)

= John used to eat rice.

                                                                                                    .

Just as a note, subjects in sentences which uses past habitual tenses do not take the particle ले (le). Okay, so here, the subject ‘John’ did an event in the past at regular occurrences. So, he ‘Used to’ do the action. The action is ‘to eat rice’. Therefore, he used to eat rice during the past in regular intervenes. 

_

ऊ हिमाल चड्थ्यो (u himal chadthyo)

= He used to climb mountains.

                                                                                                    .

Not so difficult to understand, right? However, if we use negative conjugation, then what will the results be? 

जन भात खादैनथ्यो  (jan bhat khadainathyo)

= John did not used to eat rice.

                                                                                                    .

So, using Negative Conjugation denotes actions that was not done at regular occurrences.

________________________

HOW DOES PRESENT TENSE DENOTE THE FUTURE?

Time flows on. In English, when you describe future events, you say ‘X will Y’. The word ‘will’ denotes that an action Y will be done by X in some point in the future. Nepali too, has a future tense. However, people usually do not use future tense to denote the future at all! People use Present Tense. Now, an interesting question arises. Even when there is a future tense, why do people use present tense then?

Read the first line! Time flows on. 1 second ago, it becomes Past; time 1 second later is the future, however we reach future quick enough. There is no absolute ‘Present’. As soon as the present happens, it becomes past. The ‘future’ soon becomes present! 

What I mean to say is that, you cannot take any frame of time as your ‘absolute present’. The future soon becomes present after all! However, the present was a ‘future’ some time ago, right? Past is past, but present and the future keeps moving. So, this moving timeline sends its roots in Nepali…the present was after all, future at some point in time. 

Well, that was a horrible explanation (at least to me), so long story short Present Tense also denotes future tense. However, by Present Tense I meant ‘Simple Present Tense’. I think I forgot to mention that…Continuous Tense doesn’t denote the future partly because it describes a continuous event happening right now, whereas Present Perfect Tense denotes an event that has already been completed. *phew*

Now, how do you differentiate? Through Context and common sense. When you say ‘म भोलि भात खान्छु’ (ma bholi bhat khanchu) [I + tomorrow + Rice + Eat), you automatically understand that ‘You will eat rice tomorrow’. How can we describe tomorrow using today, right? In fact, simple present is seldom used as such  (a bit more than seldom…). It is often used in the context of present habitual tense.

Hence, म भात खान्छु (ma bhat khanchu) can also mean ‘I eat rice regularly’.

So, when you say ‘म अमेरिका जान्छु’ (ma amerika janchu), people understand by the context that you will go to America.

__________________________

SUMMARY

  • The Unknown Aspect denotes the state indicated by the verb which was not ‘known’ prior to the speaker till this this current time.
  • The Past Habitual Tense denotes an action which was done at regular occurrences during the past. 
  • Simple Past Tense can denote Future Tense and Present Habitual Tense.

_________________________________________________________________

So, that is all you have to know in the intermediate step! It wasn’t so hard right? By this time, you are expected to understand basic sentences and be able to read and write Devanagari. Remember, in order to learn a language, you need to be fluent on the script too! You cannot depend on Romanization forever!

And finally, as always, if you feel some things need to be explained to you, then you can contact me anytime.

__________________________ 

EXERCISES

A. TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1. रुख अग्लो रहेछ (rukh aglo rahecha)

2. घाम र छायाँ साथी हुन गर्दथ्यो । (gham ra chaya sathi huna gardathyo)

B. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE CORRECT VERB FORM

1. ऊ भात  _________  (खान्थ्यो / खान्थे )

2. मेरी मेचमा __________  (बसेछ / बसिछे )

C. CONVERT THE VERBS INTO WHAT THE BRACKET DENOTES

1. सक्नु (Past Habitual Tense, 2nd Person, Low Respect, Masculine, positive)

2.  मार्नु (Unknown Aspect, 1st Person, Plural, negative)

____________

ANSWERS

A. 1. The tree was tall, I didn’t know.       (might vary among translators)

A. 2. The sun and the shadow used to be friends.    (as above)

B. 1. खान्थ्यो

B. 2. बसिछे

C. 1. सक्थिस् 

C. 2. मारेनछौँ 

Word of the Day (17th April 2014)

Word of the Day

खत (khat) /noun/ = Scar

Word History (if available)

From the Sanskrit word ‘क्षत’ (kṣata) which means ‘Injury; Wound

Example Sentence

यो खत कहिल्यै जाँदैन  (yo khat kahilyai jadaina)

= This scar never goes away.

Usage

Common

Short Story: Cook Kit! Cook!

Today, I will tell you a short story entitled ‘पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ’ (pakau bhada pakau). This short story is a grade 3 Story, hence the words used are simple and clear. The title literally translates into ‘Cook Utensil Cook' but I wanted the title to be a pun, so it is 'Cook Kit! Cook’. Get it?

This story is an excellent viewpoint to see how Gender is differentiated in Nepali, especially seen in the verbs. The Protagonists are female in this short story.

______

STORY

धेरै पहिले एउटा गाउँमा एउटी बुढी आफ्नी छोरी बुनुसँग बस्थिन् । उनीहरु असाध्यै गरीब भएकाले बिहान र बेलुकाको छाक टार्नसमेत धौधौ पर्थ्यो । उनीहरुसँग पैसा थिएन । गरीब भएकाले कसैले पनि उनीहरुलाई हेर्दैनथे ।

एक दिनको कुरा हो । बुनु भोकले रून थालिन् । घरभित्र गएर खानेकुरा खोजिन्, तर केही पनि भेटिएन । बुनुले भोकलाई कसरी मार्ने भन्ने उपाय सोच्न थालिन् । बुनु खानेकुरा खोज्न वनतर्फ लागिन् । त्यही समय मा अकस्मात् एउटा ऋषि आएर भने, “तिमी यहाँ किन रोएकी, तिमीलाई के भयो ?” यसो भनेको सुन्द बुनुले भनिन् “भागवान्, म धेरै दिनदेखि भोकै छु, मैले केहि खाएकी छैनँ, घरमा आमा पनि भोकै बस्नुभएको छ, मलाई केही खानेकुरा दिनुहोस् ।” ऋषि दयालु थिए । ऋषिले बुनुलाई एउटा भाँडो दिएर भने, “यो भाँडो लैजाऊ, तिम्रो भोक जहिले खतम हुन्छ” । बुनुले भाँडा समाइन् । ऋषिले सम्झाउँदै भने, “हेर नानी, तिमीलाई भोक लाग्यो भने यो भाँडालाई ‘पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ’ भन्नू । त्यसपछि यस भाँडाले खीर पकाउँछ । खीर पाकिसकेपछि ‘रोक भाँडा रोक’ भन्नू । यसले पकाउन रोक्छ । “

त्यसपछि बुनुले ऋषिलाई धन्यवाद दिइन् । साँझ बुनु त्यही भाँडो लिएर खुसी हुँदै घर आइन् । आमालाई सबै कुरा बताइन् । साँझ बुनुले “पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ” भनिन् । त्यसपछि भाँडाले खीर पकायो । खीर पाकिसकेपछि “रोक भाँडा रोक” भनिन् । त्यसपछि खीर पाक्न रोकियो । त्यसपछि आमाछोरीले भोक मेटाउने गरी खीर खाए । बुनुकी आमा धेरै खुसी भइन् । त्यसपछि उनीहरुको समस्या हट्यो ।

एक दिन बुनु साथीसँग खेल्न गएकी थिइन् । बुनुकी आमालाई भोक लाग्यो । उनले “पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ” भनिन् । त्यसपछि उनी घरको कामधन्दामा लागिन् । खीर पाक्यो तर रोकिएन, किनभने बुनुकी आमाले “रोक भाँडा रोक” भन्न बिर्सिन् । खीर पाक्दै गयो । भुइँभरि भयो । घर भरियो । बुनुकी आमा आत्तिइन् । रोक्नलाई धेरै शब्द प्रयोग गरिन्, तर रोकिएन । बुनुले ”रोक भाँडा रोक” भनेपछि रोकिन्छ भन्ने कुरा आमालाई भनेकी थिइनन् । नजान्ने काममा जान्ने हुँदा उनकी आमालाई डर लाग्यो । उनले हत्तपत्त त्यस भाँडालाई लठ्ठीले हिर्काइन् । लठ्ठीले हिर्काउँदा भाँडो फुट्यो ।

बेलुका बुनु घर आइन् । उनलाई असाध्यै भोक लाग्यो । उनी बाहिरैबाट चिच्याइन्, “पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ” तर भाँडा फुटेकाले उसले पकाएन । उनी भित्र पुग्दा भाँडो फुटेको थियो । उनी अचम्म परिन् । आमाले सबै कुरा बुनुलाई सुनाइन् । बुनु रून थालिन् । आमाले भाँडा फुटाएपछि तिनीहरु पहिले जस्तै गरीब भए ।

यसैले नजान्ने काममा कहिल्यै पनि अगाडि सर्नुहुँदैन । होस नपुर्‍याई काम गर्दा राम्रो चीज पनि गुम्छ । त्यसैले कुनै पनि काम गर्दा राम्रै सोचेर गर्नुपर्छ । विचार नपुर्‍याई काम गरेमा पछि पछुताउनु पर्छ ।

_________

MEANING

धेरै पहिले एउटा गाउँमा एउटी बुढी आफ्नी छोरी बुनुसँग बस्थिन् । (dherai pahile euta gaau ma euti budhi aafni chori bunu sanga basthin)

= Long time ago, an old woman used to live in a village with her Daughter (named) Bunu.

                                                                                                     .

उनीहरु असाध्यै गरीब भएकाले बिहान र बेलुकाको छाक टार्नसमेत धौधौ पर्थ्यो । (uniharu asadhyai garib bhaeka le bihan ra beluka ko chhak taarna samet dhau dhau parthyo)

= It was very difficult to eat even one square meal everyday for they were very poor.

                                                                                                     .

उनीहरुसँग पैसा थिएन । (uniharu sanga paisa thiena)

= They did not have any money.

                                                                                                     .

गरीब भएकाले कसैले पनि उनीहरुलाई हेर्दैनथे । (garib bhaeka le kasaile pani uniharu lai herdainathe)

= Nobody used to look after them because they were very poor.

                                                                                                     .

एक दिनको कुरा हो । (ek din ko kura ho)

= This talk is about one day.

                                                                                                     .

बुनु भोकले रून थालिन् । (bunu bhok le runa thalin)

= Bunu started to cry due to hunger.

                                                                                                     .

घरभित्र गएर खानेकुरा खोजिन्, तर केही पनि भेटिएन । (ghar bhitra gaera khanekura khojin, tara kehi pani bhetiena)

= She searched for food inside her home, but could not find anything.

                                                                                                     .

बुनुले भोकलाई कसरी मार्ने भन्ने उपाय सोच्न थालिन् । (bunu le bhok lai kasari marne bhanne upaaya sochna thalin)

= Bunu started to think about the ways on how to kill her hunger.

                                                                                                     .

बुनु खानेकुरा खोज्न वनतर्फ लागिन् । (bunu khanekura khojna ban tarfa laagin)

= In order to search for food, she headed towards the forest.

                                                                                                     .

त्यही समयमा अकस्मात् एउटा ऋषि आएर भने, “तिमी यहाँ किन रोएकी, तिमीलाई के भयो ?” (tyahi samaya ma akasmat euta rishi aaera bhane, “timi yaha kina roeki, timi lai ke bhayo?)

= At that very time, a sage suddenly came and said, “Why are you crying here, what happened to you?”

                                                                                                     .

यसो भनेको सुन्दा बुनुले भनिन् “भागवान्, म धेरै दिनदेखि भोकै छु, मैले केहि खाएकी छैनँ, घरमा आमा पनि भोकै बस्नुभएको छ, मलाई केही खानेकुरा दिनुहोस् ।” (yaso bhaneko sunda bunu le bhanin “bhagwan, ma dherai din dekhi bhokai chu, maile kehi khaeki chaina, ghar ma aama pani bhokai basnubhaeko cha, malai kehi khanekura dinuhos)

= By hearing this, Bunu said “Lord, I am hungry since a lot of days, I haven’t eaten anything, (my) mother is also staying hungry at my home, please give me some food.”

                                                                                                     .

ऋषि दयालु थिए । (rishi dayalu thie)

= The Sage was kind-hearted.

                                                                                                     .

ऋषिले बुनुलाई एउटा भाँडो दिएर भने, “यो भाँडो लैजाऊ, तिम्रो भोक जहिले खतम हुन्छ” । (rishi bunu lai euta bhado diera bhane, “yo bhada laijau, timro bhok jahile khatam huncha”)

= The Sage gave Bunu a utensil and said, “Take this utensil, your hunger will end forever.”

                                                                                                     .

बुनुले भाँडा समाइन् । (bunu bhada samain)

= Bunu held the Utensil.

                                                                                                     .

ऋषिले सम्झाउँदै भने, “हेर नानी, तिमीलाई भोक लाग्यो भने यो भाँडालाई ‘पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ’ भन्नू । त्यसपछि यस भाँडाले खीर पकाउँछ । खीर पाकिसकेपछि ‘रोक भाँडा रोक’ भन्नू । यसले पकाउन रोक्छ । ” (rishi le samjhaudai bhane, “hera nani, timilai bhok lagyo bhane yo bhadalai ‘pakau bhada pakau’ bhannu. tyaspachi tas bhada le khri pakaucha. khir pakisakepachi ‘roka bhada roka’ bhannu. yasle pakauna rokcha)

= The sage reminded, “See my child, if you are hungry say to this utensil ‘Cook Utensil Cook’. After than, this utensil will cook porridge. After the porridge is done cooking, say ‘Stop Utensil Stop’. It will stop cooking.”

                                                                                                     .

त्यसपछि बुनुले ऋषिलाई धन्यवाद दिइन् । (tyaspachi bunu le rishi lai dhanyabad di’in)

= After that Bunu gave her thanks to the Sage.

                                                                                                     .

साँझ बुनु त्यही भाँडो लिएर खुसी हुँदै घर आइन् । (sajh bunu tyahi bhado liera khusi hudai ghar aain)

= In the evening, Bunu came home happily with the Utensil.

                                                                                                     .

आमालाई सबै कुरा बताइन् । (aama lai sabai kura bataain)

= (She) told (her) mother everything.

                                                                                                     .

साँझ बुनुले “पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ” भनिन् । (sajh bunu le “pakau bhada pakau” bhanin)

= During evening Bunu said “Cook Utensil Cook”.

                                                                                                     .

त्यसपछि भाँडाले खीर पकायो । (tyaspachi bhada le khir pakayo)

= After that, the utensil started to cook Porridge.

                                                                                                     .

खीर पाकिसकेपछि “रोक भाँडा रोक” भनिन् । (khir pakisakepachi “roka bhada roka” bhanin)

= After the porridge was done cooking, she said “Stop Utensil Stop”.

                                                                                                     .

त्यसपछि खीर पाक्न रोकियो । (tyaspachi khir pakna rokyo)

= After that, the porridge stopped to cook.

                                                                                                     .

त्यसपछि आमाछोरीले भोक मेटाउने गरी खीर खाए । (tyaspachi aama chori le bhok metaaune gari khir khae)

= After that, Mother and Daughter (both) ate the porridge till their hunger was quenched.

                                                                                                     .

बुनुकी आमा धेरै खुसी भइन् । (bunu ki aama dherai khusi bhain)

= Bunu’s mother became very happy.

                                                                                                     .

त्यसपछि उनीहरुको समस्या हट्यो । (tyaspachi uniharu ko samsya hatyo)

= After that, their problems ended.

                                                                                                     .

एक दिन बुनु साथीसँग खेल्न गएकी थिइन् । (ek dun bunu sathi sanga khelna gaeki thi’in)

= One day, Bunu had gone to play with her friend.

                                                                                                     .

बुनुकी आमालाई भोक लाग्यो । (bunu ki aama lai bhok laagyo)

= Bunu’s mother felt hungry.

                                                                                                     .

उनले “पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ” भनिन् । (unle “pakau bhada pakau” bhanin)

= She said “Cook Utensil Cook”.

                                                                                                     .

त्यसपछि उनी घरको कामधन्दामा लागिन् । (tyaspachi uni ghar ko kamdhanda ma laagin)

= After that, she went to do household chores.

                                                                                                     .

खीर पाक्यो तर रोकिएन, किनभने बुनुकी आमाले “रोक भाँडा रोक” भन्न बिर्सिन् । (khir paakyo tara rokiena, kinabhane bunu ki aama le “roka bhada roka” bhanna birsin)

= The porridge was cooked but did not stop (to), because Bunu’s mother had forgotten to say “Stop Utensil Stop”.

                                                                                                     .

खीर पाक्दै गयो । भुइँभरि भयो । घर भरियो । (khir paakdai gayo. bhui bhari bhayo. ghar bhariyo)

= The porridge kept cooking. It went all over the floor. It filled the entire house.

                                                                                                     .

बुनुकी आमा आत्तिइन् । (bunu ki aama aati’in)

= Bunu’s mother started panicking.

                                                                                                     .

रोक्नलाई धेरै शब्द प्रयोग गरिन्, तर रोकिएन । (rokna lai dherai shabda prayog garin, tara rokiena)

= In order to stop it she used many words, but it did not stop.

                                                                                                     .

बुनुले ”रोक भाँडा रोक” भनेपछि रोकिन्छ भन्ने कुरा आमालाई भनेकी थिइनन् । (bunu le “roka bhada roka” bhanepachi rokincha bhanne kura aama lai bhaneki thi’inan)

= Bunu had forgotten to tell to her mother that the utensil would stop after saying “Stop Utensil Stop”.

                                                                                                     .

नजान्ने काममा जान्ने हुँदा उनकी आमालाई डर लाग्यो । (najanne kam ma janne huda unki aama lai dar laagyo)

= Her mother started to be afraid and acted to be smart in a situation where she had no clue.

                                                                                                     .

उनले हत्तपत्त त्यस भाँडालाई लठ्ठीले हिर्काइन् । (un le hattapatta tyas bhada lai tatthi le hirkaain)

= She hurriedly hit the utensil with a stick.

                                                                                                     .

लठ्ठीले हिर्काउँदा भाँडो फुट्यो । (latthi le hirkauda bhada phutyo)

= The utensil broke after the stick struck it.

                                                                                                     .

बेलुका बुनु घर आइन् । उनलाई असाध्यै भोक लाग्यो । (beluka bunu ghar aain. unlai asadhyai bhok laagyo)

= Bunu returned home at evening. She felt very hungry.

                                                                                                     .

उनी बाहिरैबाट चिच्याइन्, “पकाऊ भाँडा पकाऊ” तर भाँडा फुटेकाले उसले पकाएन । (uni bahirai bata chichyain, “pakau bhada pakau” tara bhada phuteka le usle pakaaena)

= She shouted from outside, “Cook Utensil Cook” but the utensil failed to cook because it was broken.

                                                                                                     .

उनी भित्र पुग्दा भाँडो फुटेको थियो । (uni bhitra pugda bhado phuteko thiyo)

= When she went inside, the utensil was broken.

                                                                                                     .

उनी अचम्म परिन् । (uni achamma parin)

= She became shocked.

                                                                                                     .

आमाले सबै कुरा बुनुलाई सुनाइन् । (aama le sabai kura bunu lai sunaain)

= (Her) mother told her everything (that happened).

                                                                                                     .

बुनु रून थालिन् । (bunu runa thalin)

= Bunu started to cry.

                                                                                                     .

आमाले भाँडा फुटाएपछि तिनीहरु पहिले जस्तै गरीब भए । (aama le bhada phutaechai tini haru pahile jastai garib bhae)

= After (her) mother smashed the utensil, they became poor again.

_____________________

VOCABULARY

भाँडा (bhada) = Utensil

 गाउँ (gau) = Village

बुढी (budhi) = Old Woman

असाध्यै (asadhyai) = Very 

गरीब (garib) = Poor

बिहान (bihan) = Morning

बेलुका (beluka) = Evening

छाक (chhak) = One square meal

धौधौ (dhaudhau) = Difficult (onomatopoetic

पैसा (paisa) = Money

भोक (bhok) = Hunger

खानेकुरा (khanekura) = Foodstuff

उपाय (upaaya) = Remedy; Solution

वन (ban) = Forest

समय (samaya) = Time

अकस्मात् (akasmaat) = Suddenly

ऋषि (rishi) = Sage

भागवान्  (bhagwan) = God

दयालु (dayaalu) = Kind

खतम (khatam) = [To] End

खीर (khir) = Porridge

साँझ (sajh) = Eveninng

समस्या (samasya) = Problem

कामधन्दा (kamdhanda) = Chores [kam (work) + dhanda (doing dishes)]

भुइँ (bhui) = Floor

प्रयोग (prayog) = Use

डर (dar) = Fear

लठ्ठी (laththi) = Stick

अचम्म (achchamma) = Shocked; Astounded

_________________

QUESTIONS

1. Imagine a robot named ‘anuv@4d' did the translation and transliteration work. The story had a moral (यसैले नजान्ने काममा कहिल्यै पनि अगाडि सर्नुहुँदैन । होस नपुर्‍याई काम गर्दा राम्रो चीज पनि गुम्छ । त्यसैले कुनै पनि काम गर्दा राम्रै सोचेर गर्नुपर्छ । विचार नपुर्‍याई काम गरेमा पछि पछुताउनु पर्छ) which was neither translated nor transliterated. Can you do the work which the robot missed out?

2. Find meaning of: हत्तपत्त (hattapatta)

3. What is the difference between the meanings of भाँडा (bhada) and भाडा (bhada)? 

4. Could the disaster have been averted if Bunu had warned to her mother before? 

5. Bunu seems to cry a lot. Suggest methods on how people — with modern technology — can harness the hydro energy generated by her eyes. Is it feasible?

_________________

ANSWERS (some not provided)

2. Quicky; Hurriedly

3. भाँडा (bhada) = Utensil  / भाडा (bhada) = Rent; Fare

4. Yes

 

Word of the Day (16th April 2014)

Word of the Day

नदी (nadi) /noun/ = River

Word History (if available)

From Sanskrit

Example Sentence

यो नदी बगेर बगेर समुद्रसँग मिसिन्छ (yo nadi bagera bagera samudra sanga misincha)

= This river flows and flows, then mixes with the sea.

Usage

Common, a synonym of ‘खोला’ (khola)

The Oblique Case in Pronouns

INTRODUCTION

When we add postpositions to certain pronouns, the pronoun changes forms. Do you know what is an oblique case? The change of form when we add postpositions is known as the oblique case. This is an important part of learning Nepali, so you might not want to skip this part. An example of a pronoun in oblique case is the English ‘Him’, which comes from ‘he’. So:

ऊ (u) + ले (le) = उसले (usle)

Where, उस (us) is in Oblique Form.

Oblique forms in English are usually Accusative or Dative Cases but in Nepali, they depend on the particle that modifies it. 

Nouns do not undergo this process; only Pronouns undergo this process.

1ST PERSON OBLIQUE CASE

1st Person Perspective Pronouns consist of ‘म’ (ma) and हामी (hami), which mean ‘I’ and ‘We’ respectively. म (ma) and हामी (hami) only obliques when it is modified with a genitive marker, as you know from the lesson 'Particle: Ko'. Just in brief, a genitive marker shows possession, composition etc., like X ko Y means ‘X’s Y’.

So, how does it oblique?

म (ma) and हामी (hami) doesn’t take the normal 'ko' (such rebels!) but rather the genitive marker रो (ro). The trouble doesn’t end there, though. The last part of म (ma) and हामी (hami) obliques; it changes its last part to form a seemingly new word. Let’s see what happens to म (ma) when we add रो (ro):

म (ma) + रो (ro) = मेरो (mero)

So, that’s it! That word ‘मेरो’ (mero) is the obliqued form, which has a meaning of ‘My’. 

 There are two more forms of रो (ro):  रा (ra) and री (ri). Adding these two will also yield the same results excluding the final vowel sound:

म (ma) + रा (ra) = मेरा (mera)             [PLURAL]

म (ma) + री (ri) =  मेरी (meri)             [FEMININE]

Please do note that ‘मेरा’ (mera) doesn’t mean ‘We’. Since these words are adjectives and the form of adjectives depend on the word they modify, hence ‘mera' is used with plural Objects. So, mera will be used when Y is plural, given it is in the form of  X ko Y. Similarly, meri is used when Y is a feminine object.

Also, म (ma) additionally obliques with the postposition ले (le), yielding मैले (maile). 

The oblique case of हामी (hami) is also very similar! You can see how it obliques in the lesson about the particle 'Ko’. (link here

Just in Brief:

हामी (hami) + रो (ro) = हाम्रो (hamro)              [SINGULAR]

हामी (hami) + रा (ra) = हाम्रा (hamra)              [PLURAL]

हामी (hami) + री (ri) = हाम्री (hamri)                [FEMININE]  

Basically, that end vowel sound is replaced by the genitive markers. 

__________

2ND PERSON OBLIQUE CASE

Second Person Perspective Pronouns consist of ‘You’. However, there are three ways to say ‘you’ in Nepali. They are: 

तँ (ta) = Denotes the least respect

तिमी (timi) = Denotes neutral/ medium respect

तपाईं (tapai) = Denotes the highest respect

तपाईं (tapai) doesn’t Oblique at all, so you are safe with that word. However, तँ (ta) and तिमी (timi) obliques with the genitive marker 'ro', with तँ (ta) additionally obliquing with the Postposition ले (le).

So, तँ (ta) is obliqued with रो (ro) and its various forms into: 

तँ (ta) + रो (ro) = तेरो (tero)

तँ (ta) + रा (ra) =  तेरा (tera)

तँ (ta) + री (ri) = तेरी (teri)

The above forms of तँ (ta) has a similar meaning of ‘Your’, although the respect denoted is nil.

तँ (ta) is also obliqued with the postposition ले (le) to yield तैँले (taile). However, तँ (ta) is not obliqued when other postpositions are added, like when we add ‘लाई’ (lai) or मा (ma), it yields तँलाई (talai) and तँमा (ta’ma) respectively.

तिमी (timi) obliques with genitive markers ‘ro' and its forms only. So, तिमी (timi) forms the following:

तिमी (timi) + रो (ro) = तिम्रो (timro)           

तिमी (timi) + रा (ra) = तिम्रा (timra)

तिमी (timi) + री (ri) = तिम्री (timri)

Adding other postpositions to तिमी (timi), like ले (le) or लाई (lai) doesn’t affect the word i.e. ‘timi' doesn't oblique in this case. So, you would say तिमीले (timi’le) or तिमीलाई (timi’lai).

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3RD PERSON OBLIQUE CASE

3rd Person Pronouns consist of ऊ (u) and उहाँ (uha). These two words have identical meaning but is surprisingly gender neutral. That doesn’t mean they mean ‘IT’ but rather it can sometimes mean ‘He' and sometimes 'She’, depending on the situation. ऊ (u) and उहाँ (uha) collectively has a meaning of ‘He/ She’. The differentiation in gender is done by the verb. So, what is the difference between the two? The amount of respect they denote! ऊ (u) denotes Medium/ Neutral Respect whereas उहाँ (uha) denotes High respect. 

उहाँ (uha) doesn’t oblique. In fact, all words that denote High Respect do not oblique.

The oblique form ऊ (u) is उस (us). When we add postpositions, it is added to this form; उस (us).

For example, if we add ले (le) and लाई (lai), it forms उसले (us’le) and उसलाई (us’lai) respectively.

Please do note that, the end ‘स’ (sa) of ‘उस’ (us) doesn’t get turned into a halant form when we add postpositions! Many people write ‘उस्ले’ or उस्लाई … that is wrong! 

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OBLIQUE CASE IN RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

Relative Pronouns are words which introduce a relative clause. It is just like the word ‘Who' in the sentence: That man who ate food yesterday was me. In Nepali, जो (jo), जे (je) and जुन (jun). 

जे (je) means ‘What' which is used when introducing Gender-Neutral Singular Objects only. जो (jo) which means ‘Who' is used when introducing Human Animates. जुन (jun) has a meaning similar to ‘That’.

Only जो (jo) has an oblique form, which is ‘जस’ (jas). When we add postpositions, it is obliqued into जस (jas).

For example:

जो (jo) + ले (le) = जसले (jas’le)

Now, Interrogative Pronouns are question words like ‘What' in 'What is this?’. You can check out the Lesson ‘Question Structure' for the list of Interrogative Pronouns. Now, 'को' (ko) which means ‘Who' is obliqued into कस (kas) when we add various postpositions. You can see its forms in that lesson, and an example is:

को (ko) + ले (le) = कसले (kas’le)

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OBLIQUE CASE IN DETERMINERS

Determiners, like यो (yo) and त्यो (tyo) which mean ‘This' and 'That' respectively undergo change too. Among all the determiners, these two stand unique. In Determiners, I will include Reflexive Pronouns too, to save space. (I know, I know…I want less categories okay)

The Oblique Forms of यो (yo) and त्यो (tyo) are यस (yas) and त्यस (tyas) respectively. When we add postpositions to यो (yo) and त्यो (tyo), they are always obliqued to this form, irrespective of whatever postposition you add. So:

यो (yo) + ले (le) = यसले  (yas’le)

त्यो (tyo) + मा (ma) =  त्यसमा (tyas’ma

In short, these two are always obliqued.

Now, the most important reflexive pronoun in Nepali is आफू (aafu) which means ‘Self’. आफू (aafu) is obliqued only when we add the genitive marker नो (no). So, when we add those two, we get:

आफु (aafu) +नो (no) = आफ्नो (aafno)               [SINGULAR]

आफु (aafu) +ना (na) = आफ्ना (aafna)               [PLURAL]

आफु (aafu) + नी (ni) = आफ्नी (aafni)                [FEMININE]

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That’s all about the Oblique Case in Nepali! It is pretty easy right? 

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EXERCISE

USE THE RIGHT OBLIQUE CASE IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:

1. _______ भात खायो      ( _______ bhat khayo /he ate rice/ )

2. _______ _____ खेलौना मलाई दियो  ( ____ ____ khelauna malai diyo/ He gave me his toy/ )

3. ______ _____ हातमा लेखेँ  [_____ ______ haat ma lekhe /I wrote on your (least respect) hand/ ] 

__________

ANSWERS

1. उसले (us’le)

2. उसले (us’le), उसको (us’ko)

3. मैले (maile), तेरो (tero)

Word of the Day (15th April 2014)

Word of the Day

सतह (sataha) /noun/ = Surface

Word History (if available)

Originated from Arabic ‘sataha' which means 'Surface

Example Sentence

सतह बहन्छौ कति दुर (sataha bahanchau kati dur)

= How far will you tread the surface?     [from poem Yatri]

Greetings: Happy New Year

nepalgo:

Yay! Nepali New Year 2070 is coming! This year, New Year falls on 14th April 2013, Saturday. New Year is calledनयाँ वर्ष  (naya barsha) in Nepali (alternative: . 2070 is called दुई हजार सत्तरी (dui hajaar sattari) in Nepali Numbers. So to wish ‘Happy Nepali New Year 2070’ we say ‘नयाँ वर्ष 2070 को हार्दिक शुभकामना !’ (naya barsha dui hajar sattari ko hardik shubhakamana). For a more casual (and general) tone, we would say ‘नयाँ वर्षको शुभकामना ’ (naya barshako shubhakamana). Happy Nepali New Year 2070 Readers! :)

Today (14th April 2014, Monday) is Nepali New Year 2071!

Happy Nepali New Year 2071 Everyone! :-)